Courses & Requirements

General Requirements

The 87 semester hours necessary for graduation must include the successful completion of the following courses and requirements:

First-Year Courses

The following courses totaling 31 semester hours are required.

LAW R515 Civil Procedure
Semester hours: 4
Description
Introduction, with emphasis on federal law, to rules governing jurisdiction, venue, service of process, pleadings, joinder, discovery, summary adjudication, trial, judgments, direct and collateral attack on judgments, appellate procedure, and choice of law in civil litigation.

LAW R503 Constitutional Law
Semester hours: 4
Description
An introduction to the law of the United States Constitution and to the legal dynamics of constitutional drafting and interpreting. Separation of powers, federalism, economic and social regulation, privileges, and immunities of U.S. citizenship, and the federal civil rights to equal protection and due process are examined from doctrinal and historical perspectives.

LAW R513 Contracts
Semester hours: 4
Description
Basic elements of contract law. Stress on the agreement process, i.e., offer and acceptance, consideration, and substitutes for consideration. Avoidance of contractual obligations, conditions, performance, and breach of contracts are examined, as are discharge of contractual duties and remedies. Third-party beneficiaries, assignments, and illegal contracts may be examined. The Uniform Commercial Code and the Restatement are emphasized throughout.

LAW R506 Criminal Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Sources of criminal law; constitutional limitations on power to create and define crimes; elements of crimes; conduct, mental state, causation; specific offenses, including homicides, sex offenses, larceny and other property offenses; defenses of mistakes, infancy, compulsion, intoxication, insanity; attempt; solicitation; conspiracy; accessoryship.

LAW R517 Lawyering Skills I
Semester hours: 3
Description
Introduces first-year law students to essential lawyering skills including legal analysis, predictive and persuasive writing, research, counseling, negotiation, and oral advocacy.

LAW R518 Lawyering Skills II
Semester hours: 2
Description
Introduces first-year law students to essential lawyering skills including legal analysis, predictive and persuasive writing, research, counseling, negotiation, and oral advocacy.

LAW R519 Legislation and Regulation
Semester hours: 3
Description
Legislation and Regulation provides an introduction to public lawmaking in the modern administrative state. It examines the way Congress and administrative agencies adopt binding rules of law (statutes and regulations, respectively) and the way implementing institutions--courts and administrative agencies--interpret and apply these laws. It considers, in particular, the justifications for modern regulation, the structure of the modern administrative state, the incentives that influence the behavior of the various actors, and the legal rules that help to structure the relationships among Congress, the agencies, and the courts.

LAW R516 Property
Semester hours: 4
Description
Introduction to property laws, with emphasis on the concepts of title and possession of personal and real property; finders and bailments; rights and remedies of the possessor; donative transactions; rights of the bona fide purchaser; historical background of real property law; estates in land; concurrent ownership; conveyancing and future interests after the Statute of Uses; Statute of Frauds; contracts, deeds, and mortgages in the sale of land; recordation and title examination; covenants, easements, and licenses in the use of land.

LAW R514 Torts
Semester hours: 4
Description
Liability for personal injuries and injuries to property. Includes analysis of various intentional tort theories, the concepts of negligence and strict liability, and the privileges and defenses which may apply to actions brought in tort. May include treatment of one or more special or emerging areas such as product liability, misrepresentation, privacy, defamation, misuse of legal procedures, or interference with advantageous relationships.

Required Upper-Level Courses

The following upper-level courses totaling four semester hours are required.

LAW R598 Lawyering Skills III
Semester hours: 2
Description
Introduces second-year students to essential lawyering skills of trial and appellate advocacy.

LAW R605 Professional Responsibility
Semester hours: 2
Description
Ethical standards of the legal profession, including judicial ethics and unauthorized practice.

Lawyering Skills IV

One of the following upper-level courses is required:

LAW R599 Appellate Advocacy
Semester hours: 2
Description
Introduces second-year students to essential lawyering skills of trial and appellate advocacy. Meets Lawyering Skills IV requirement and is strongly encouraged during the second year.

LAW E699-W Business Litigation Practicum
Semester hours: 3
Description
Special Topic. Two-case simulation of a business litigation practice: interviewing the client, determining the causes of action, figuring out where to sue, drafting the complaint, researching defenses, preparing possible counterclaims, preparing discovery, and drafting a summary judgment motion.

LAW E679 Contract Drafting
Semester hours: 2
Description
In this Law Skills IV pilot course, Application of contract law principles to the drafting of contracts through weekly written exercises, drafting assignments, and negotiations. Techniques to draft clear and accurate contracts and to effectively review contracts drafted by others. Several exercises will include ethical considerations in contract drafting. Meets Lawyering Skills IV requirement.

LAW E660 Environmental Lawyering
Semester hours: 3
Description
In-depth exposure to the practice of environmental law through case-studies, simulations, and practice problems. Practice in client counseling, regulatory interpretation, drafting, negotiation, enforcement actions, litigation settlement, and legal ethics in environmental law. Class sessions will be devoted to simulations and discussions of written assignments. Case studies and problems are drawn primarily from the areas of air pollution control, endangered species, and hazardous waste regulation, with more limited coverage of other fields of environmental law. Grading will be based on writing assignments and in-class presentations, due throughout the semester. There is no final exam. Meets Lawyering Skills IV requirement.
Prerequisites
Environmental Law (LAWE 620)

LAW E699-G Intellectual Property Litigation Practicum
Semester hours: 3
Description
Special Topic. Exposure to intellectual property litigation practice through simulation. Skills will include interviewing and counseling client; recognizing causes of action, potential counter-claims, and defenses; figuring out jurisdiction and venue issues; preparing discovery; and drafting pre-trial motions. Grading will be based on writing assignments and class participation in simulation exercises. Meets Lawyering Skills IV requirement.
Prerequisites
IP Fundamentals or at least one of Patent Law, Copyright Law, or Trademark & Unfair Competition Law

LAW E665 Law of Clean and Renewable Energy
Semester hours: 3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Satisfies the Law Skills IV requirement.
Description
Explores the challenges and opportunities that come with new policies seeking to promote renewable energy and transition to a low-carbon electricity system. Covers attributes of specific types of renewable energy (including wind, solar, and biofuels) and mandates and goals for renewable energy (including renewable portfolio standards and feed-in tariffs); federal, state, and local demand response laws, including their relationship to the Smart Grid; state and federal laws governing the siting and permitting of renewable energy facilities; tax and other incentives for demand response and renewables; ratemaking, wholesale markets and other aspects of the sale of electricity; and financing mechanisms for transactions involving efficiency and renewables.

LAW E601 PreTrial Drafting
Semester hours: 3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Satisfies the Law Skills IV requirement.
Description
Enhances understanding of critical pretrial tools and provides practical experience with using these tools. Course requires drafting a variety of pretrial documents that are frequently used in litigation, such as a complaint, and a pretrial motion. Also provides practice of such skills as interviewing clients and negotiating settlements. Focuses on the correct use of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure but relevant in state court litigation as well.

Upper-Level Writing Requirement (ULWR)

During the second or third year of law school, the student must satisfactorily complete a substantial paper which requires in-depth research and rigorous analysis of a specific area of law and evidences a sophisticated knowledge of the law, including larger issues concerning the impact of the law on various parts of society, and future directions the law may take. This requirement may be fulfilled by an independent research paper meeting these goals, a paper prepared for a seminar course designated as approved for this requirement, or by publication of an article in the journal of an American Bar Association accredited law school.

The notation "Meets upper-level writing requirement" appears after the description of some of these courses. Other courses will occasionally be structured in a format so as to meet the requirement. The list of courses offered, published each year by the law school, indicates all the courses offered that year through which this requirement can be satisfied.

Second- or Third-Year Elective Courses

Note: The required course, Professional Responsibility, and the elective course, Evidence, must be satisfactorily completed by the end of the second year if the student wishes to qualify under the Third-year Practice Rule. Students may obtain a Third-year Practice certificate after they have completed 56 credits and courses in Civil Procedure, Criminal Law, Evidence, and Professional Responsibility. This certificate allows a student to appear in some courts under the supervision of a licensed attorney.

LAW E708 ADR in the Workplace
Semester hours: 3
Description
Explores mediation and arbitration in both union and nonunion workplaces. In addition to reading and discussion, students participate in simulations of both processes and also write a post-hearing arbitration brief.

LAW E607 Administrative Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
The common process by which the law produced by government agencies is produced and challenged. Study of the constitutional limits on bureaucratic power and structure and examination the most important sections of federal and state statutes that impose uniform procedures for the promulgation of regulations and the decision of cases before administrative tribunals. Specific examples from the work of agencies such as environmental protection agencies, industrial and professional licensing boards, labor relations boards, workers' compensation tribunals, and schools. Includes federal and state law. For their grades, students are invited to take a final examination or to produce case notes suitable for law review publication.

LAW E608 Admiralty Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Special procedural and substantive laws that regulate waterborne commerce. Designed to present an overview of admiralty law for those anticipating the practice of law where boating and shipping are found, including topics related to civil procedure and federal courts: e.g., jurisdiction, attachment, and immunities; contracts and commercial law: e.g., salvage, insurance, and liability allocation among shippers and carriers; and matters of personal injury and labor law: e.g., workers compensation, unemployment compensation, and wrongful death. Grades are awarded on the basis of an examination, oral or written, a research paper, or a Supreme Court brief for the Judge John R. Brown Admiralty Moot Court Competition.

LAW E773 Advanced Children's Law Clinic
Semester hours: 6
Description
With faculty permission, students who have completed either the Delinquency Clinic or the Disability Law Clinic, may enroll for between two and six credits. Advanced students will take leadership roles in clinic cases and complete a significant project over the course of the semester.

LAW E699-V Advanced Constitutional Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Special Topic. A one semester, survey course outlining salient aspects of the intersection of law and human freedom in the United States. The course focuses upon constitutional protection of: freedom of religion; freedom from racial discrimination; rights of criminal defendants; privacy rights; and, rights to political participation, especially voting. To provide historical context, students will learn about the role of the Declaration of Independence in framing the broad values and objectives of the United States, the limitations of both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution of 1787, and the perceived need for a Bill of Rights. The course considers relevant Supreme Court jurisprudence interpreting the Constitution as well as attempts to amend the Constitution for instance via the Reconstruction and Nineteenth Amendments. The course will satisfy the upper level writing requirement.

LAW E703 Advanced Family Law Seminar
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
A medium to explore selected family law issues in greater depth. It is organized to address the needs of students who are seriously considering family law practice, and the pre-requisite course requirement for this Seminar is Family Law 626. Hypothetical clients will be analyzed from courtship through divorce. Various problem-solving exercises may be utilized and family law theory and practice will be explored from the viewpoint of a law firm attempting to give legal advice to its clients. Prominent family law practitioners as guest lecturers will speak on a variety of selected family law issues. This Seminar will focus upon, but not be limited to, Virginia family law. Each student will be required to write a research paper on a family law topic of his or her choice.

LAW E748 Advanced Legal Research
Semester hours: 2
Description
Explores legal research strategies and resources more comprehensively and in-depth than what is covered during first year as well as an increased emphasis on electronic resources. Review of primary American legal sources in all types of formats plus extensive coverage of legal research in selected subject areas, such as international law, federal taxation, and labor and employment law.

LAW E747 Advanced Legal Research: Foreign and International Law
Semester hours: 1
Description
Basic foundation in researching international and foreign law. Basic concepts, sources, and specialized research tools used in international and foreign legal research. Includes researching international treaties and agreements, documents of international organizations, decisions of international courts and tribunals, and foreign legal materials.

LAW E632 Advanced Trial Practice
Semester hours: 3
Description
Refines and builds on the skills covered in Trial Practice or Lawyering Skills by using more complex civil and criminal problems and files developed by the National Institute for Trial Advocacy for training the more experienced trial advocate. Special emphasis will be placed on the development of a case theory and the choosing of an appropriate case theme for the more complex case. Covers use of demonstrative evidence, including photographs, charts, white boards, overheads, videos, and computer simulations. Enrollment limited. While both civil and criminal problems will be used in the class, special emphasis is placed upon civil litigation and trying a complex civil case.
Prerequisites
Lawyering Skills III (598).

LAW E612 Agency and Partnership
Semester hours: 2
Description
Creation of agency relationships; contractual liability of principals (disclosed and undisclosed), agents and third parties; tort liability of principals; fiduciary duties of agents; partnership: creation, rights, and duties of partners, dissolution of partnerships; limited partnerships; limited liability companies (LLCs).

LAW E610 Alternative Dispute Resolution
Semester hours: 2
Description
An exploration of the process of mediation as an alternative to litigation. Topics will include mediation history and theory, general conflict resolution techniques, specific mediation techniques, including identifying interests, reframing, building successes, dealing with emotions, caucusing, brainstorming, evaluating options and consequences, and reality testing. Skills in theses techniques will be developed through role-play. Other topics will include the role of mediators in drafting agreements, forms of agreements and mediator ethics. In addition, the role of attorneys as advocates and advocacy techniques will be covered. Limited to sixteen students.

LAW E709 Animal Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Exploration of this emerging field of law with an emphasis on the latest cases, legislation and legal theory behind it. Areas of study include anti-cruelty; dogfighting; cockfighting; standing; wills and trusts benefitting animals; factory farming; The Endangered Species Act; non-economic damages for harm done to companion animals; and litigation over the treatment and welfare of animals. Classes will incorporate real world contributions from many of those people directly affected by animal law, including veterinarians, prosecutors, activists and lawyers.

LAW E737 Anti-Bribery Law in International Business
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets Upper Level Writing Requirement.
Description
Examines laws that prohibit the bribing of foreign government officials for business purposes, focusing principally on the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, but also examining the UK Bribery Act, the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, and the UN Convention Against Corruption. Analyzes these laws from both a practice-oriented compliance perspective and a policy perspective.

LAW E699-U Anti-Bribery Research
Semester hours: 1
Description
Special Topic. Part of a two-semester sequence on Brazil, Corruption, and the 2016 Summer Olympics. Course is pass/fail.
Prerequisites
Instructor approval only.

LAW E613 Antitrust
Semester hours: 3
Description
Control of private economic power in the United States, focusing on the law regarding monopolies, mergers, and restrictive business practices as regulated by the Sherman and Clayton acts. Some attention to other federal antitrust legislation such as the Federal Trade Commission Act and state antitrust enforcement.

LAW E704 Bankruptcy and Creditors' Rights
Semester hours: 3 or 4
Description
Explores what happens when a business or consumer defaults on debts. While most of the classes will deal with the Bankruptcy Code, we will also cover Virginia creditors rights law.

LAW E717 Bioethics
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Seminar with primary focus on bioethical legal issues that confront society today. Among topics to be considered: distinctions, if any, between ethical and legal issues; philosophical models for analyzing bioethical issues, including deontological models (rules and rights), theological models (utilitarian, economic), and models of care; informed consent and autonomy versus utility debate; genetic engineering; shortages of organ supply; termination of life support; quality- of-life issues; beginning care and infants; cost issues, including how much to treat; and the cost of technology versus other societal values.

LAW E602 Business Associations
Semester hours: 4
Description
Focuses on the law governing corporations, as well as the law of agency, partnerships, and limited liability companies. Discussion will include the choice of business form, distribution of power between managers and owners, fiduciary duties of managers, shareholder voting, and the special problems of close corporations.

LAW E668 Business Planning
Semester hours: 3
Description
Study of the role of the lawyer in business formation and financing; choice of business entity; choice of jurisdiction in which to organize; LLC operating agreements; selected issues under federal securities law; equity-based compensation; intellectual property protection; the venture capital industry; and preferred stock investments (including dividend and liquidation preferences, conversion, redemption, anti-dilution protection, voting rights agreements, and investor rights agreements). Requires students to perform nine written homework assignments and prepare three major written assignments consisting of memoranda and deal documents. For the homework and major assignments, we will operate as a notional law firm (students acting as associates and Professor Fisher as a partner), representing a start-up high technology business. Focuses on a practical understanding of the law and extreme precision when working with complicated deal documents.
Prerequisites
Corporations (LAWE602)

LAW E736 Capital Murder Litigation
Semester hours: 2
Description
Important issues arising in the trial of death penalty cases, including constitutional and statutory challenges, punishable offenses, mitigation, and jury selection.

LAW E713 Child Support Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Provides substantive background in federal and state child support law; judicial establishment, modification, and enforcement of child support obligations; interstate matters, including the Uniform Interstate Family Support Act and the Uniform Parentage Act; current trends such as same-sex marriage, prisoner re-entry, military issues, and changes to the Bankruptcy Act; and the role of attorneys for the Virginia Division of Child Support Enforcement.

LAW E616 Children and the Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Analysis of the legal relationships among children, families, and the state. Focus on how the law balances the rights and interests of children, their parents and caregivers, and the state under both the federal constitution and state law. Topics include the status, rights, and obligations of parents and children, and abuse and neglect of children, including the termination of parental rights. We will consider important and complex questions, for example, the appropriate balance between family autonomy and state regulation, and the effects of race, class, and gender on the legal rules in this area.

LAW E753 Children's Defense Clinic
Semester hours: 6
Description
Students advocate on behalf of children appearing before area juvenile courts. In the majority of cases, students serve as defense counsel for youth accused of delinquency (criminal) offenses. Students are also occasionally assigned to work on other cases which involve children's issues such as abuse and neglect or custody.

LAW E631 Civil Litigation
Semester hours: 3
Description
Prepares students to (1) interview the client, (2) conduct informal fact investigation, (3) choose the proper forum, (4) draft, file and serve a complaint, (5) respond to a complaint with an answer or motion to dismiss, (6) seek or resist discovery, whether informally or through motion practice, (7) evaluate opportunities for summary judgment, (8) obtain post-judgment judicial relief in the trial court, (9) evaluate the prospects of reversal through appeal, and (10) collect money owed on judgments Also includes the law of preclusion, the law of remedies, and basic choice of law rules. The course strongly emphasizes the practical over the theoretical, and breadth of knowledge over depth of knowledge.

LAW E750 Civil Placement Program
Semester hours: 5-7
Description
Placements are available with non profit lawyers as well as local, state, and federal government lawyers working on civil law matters. Opportunities are offered in the areas of litigation, public policy, legislative advocacy, and regulatory law. Two-hour classroom component required. Graded pass/fail. See director of Clinical Placement Program for more details.

LAW E699-M Civil Procedure II
Semester hours: 2
Description
Special Topic. Picks up where first-year Civil Procedure leaves off, covering additional essentials of civil procedure for those who intend to litigate. Topics include advanced joinder issues (including intervention), disposition of duplicative or related litigation, class certification, jurisdiction and choice of law in class actions, and preclusion issues. By the end of the course, you should have a more complete procedural toolkit for litigation as it exists today.

LAW E686 Civil Rights Litigation
Semester hours: 3
Description
If a cop frisks you when he shouldn't, can you collect damages from him? If a public school requires prayer before every class, what can you do stop the constitutional violation? If you call 911 and the dispatcher fails to dispatch an officer, have your rights been violated? These and many other questions are addressed in this class, the ultimate goal of which is to provide students with the knowledge necessary to enforce constitutional rights through litigation. Includes (1) several commonly-litigated constitutional rights (such as abuse by a police or corrections officer), (2) the types of defendants that can be sued, (3) the common defenses, and (4) the nature and scope of the available remedies. Also provides the opportunity to assess the underlying causes of official misconduct, the limits of litigation as a civil rights enforcement tool, and whether alternate means of enforcement might be preferable.

LAW E699-N Civilian Workers in War Zones
Semester hours: 2
Description
Special Topic. Inter-disciplinary university seminar on the management of risks for civilians working in conflict zones in the service of U.S. policy. Examines private and public law and policy shaping this sort of employment, interviewing interested parties and experts, meanwhile assembling and assessing relevant documents. Among the issues under scrutiny will be the adequacy of warning, pre-deployment training, rescue arrangements, and special forms of compensation. Two graded products will be contributions to a set of best practices and recommendations for those anticipating such service, and to a collection of the stories of those who have "been there and done that."

LAW E723 Collaborative Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Provides history and development of the collaborative practice model. Will discuss principles of collaborative practice and its different steps, the legal implications of required and recommended practice, and the difference between interest-based and positional negotiation strategies. In addition, students will practice skills necessary for effective collaborative practice. Will also explore ethical issues involved.

LAW E618 Commercial Paper and Payment Systems
Semester hours: 3
Description
Law relating to negotiable instruments, bank deposits and collections, and electronic money transfers, with emphasis on Articles 3, 4, and 4A of the Uniform Commercial Code, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, and Regulation CC.

LAW E699-A Comparative Business Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Special Topic. Studies various dimensions of the legal environment that businesses face when entering the major emerging markets. It will study China in depth, and compare its business law environment to those of other major developing countries such as Brazil, Mexico, or India. Topics covered might include history and politics, human rights, labor and employment, trade, corporate reorganizations and mergers, intellectual property, real estate, taxation, and dispute resolution.

LAW E699-L Comparative Criminal Procedure
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Satisfies Upper Level Writing Requirement.
Description
Special Topic. Examines and contrasts selected aspects of the criminal justice system operating in a sampling of countries in Europe, Asia and South America. Grading will be based upon a student¿s written and oral presentation of some aspect of a selected criminal justice system. Open to law and undergraduate Arts and Sciences, Business, and Jepson students.

LAW E630 Comparative Employment Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Focuses on labor and employment law and relations in the developed countries, with a primary concentration on Europe and the U.S. Involves online collaboration with Bocconi University, Milan, Italy. Topics include how different legislation deals with issues like flexibility, redundancies or layoffs, employment protection, outsourcing, transfer of operations, collective bargaining, strikes, workplace privacy, employment discrimination and employee v. independent contractor status. Provides students with the methodological tools to understand the complex issues that arise when representing employers and employees in the global economy. Assessment will be by both the case study and a final exam.

LAW E694 Comparative Public Law of the U.S. and U.K.
Semester hours: 2
Description
(Offered only in the Cambridge University Program.) Examines and compares underlying principles of constitutional and administrative law in the U.S. and the U.K.

LAW E759 Computer Law
Semester hours: 2-3
Fullfills General Education Requirement May meet upper-level writing requirement at instructor's option.
Description
Explores specific problems encountered in "cyberspace" in such areas as personal jurisdiction and choice of law, regulatory jurisdiction and effectiveness, intellectual property, commercial transactions, digital defamation, and freedom of speech and privacy.

LAW E621 Conflict of Laws
Semester hours: 3
Description
Explores the law which applies to parties and transactions involving two or more states, or two or more nations. Emphasis on the variety of choice of law methodologies employed by American courts, including both traditional and modern approaches to choice of law. Also addresses such other issues raised by interstate and international transactions as recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, long-arm jurisdiction, and constitutional limitations on choice of law decisions. Throughout the course, an attempt will be made to offer a comparative look at the way judicial systems of other nations deal with these issues. Assessment: The grade in this course will be based on one final examination, as well as class participation.

LAW E698 Constitutional and Statutory Law of Public Employment
Semester hours: 2-3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement.
Description
Examination of statutory and constitutional employment rights of public employees in federal, state, and local government. Concentration on legal framework for union organization and collective bargaining rights of public employees. Comparative analysis of various approaches to government employee rights, including analysis of relevant public policy issues.

LAW E617 Construction Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Issues peculiar to construction projects from the perspective of the various participants, including developer, contractor, architect and lender and on dispute avoidance and resolution techniques. Includes negotiation and drafting of construction-related contracts.

LAW E679 Contract Drafting
Semester hours: 2
Description
In this Law Skills IV pilot course, Application of contract law principles to the drafting of contracts through weekly written exercises, drafting assignments, and negotiations. Techniques to draft clear and accurate contracts and to effectively review contracts drafted by others. Several exercises will include ethical considerations in contract drafting. Meets Lawyering Skills IV requirement.

LAW E788 Copyright Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
A detailed examination of the law that protects literary, musical, artistic, and other works of authorship, with particular attention to the 1976 federal copyright statute, as amended. Topics include requirements for and scope of copyright protection, ownership and duration of copyright, copyright rights and remedies, fair use, interaction of copyright and digital technologies, the liability of third parties for the copyright infringement of others, and the tension between copyright and other areas of the law, such as free speech, patent, and contract law.

LAW E619 Core Commercial Law Concepts
Semester hours: 2-3
Description
Explores the core concepts involved in (1) sales and leases of goods,(2) notes, checks, and electronic forms of payment, (3) credit transactions involving letters of credit and (4) credit transactions involving collateral other than real property. Emphasize principles rather than specific rules.

LAW E689 Corporate Finance
Semester hours: 2-3
Description
Topics covered include an analysis of corporate financial statements; security pricing; and other investment topics. No preliminary ability in finance is assumed and basic skills such as the time value of money are introduced. Microsoft Excel is utilized for most calculations.
Prerequisites
Business Associations (602)

LAW E721 Corporate Governance
Semester hours: 2-3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
An overview of corporate governance today and the frauds that prompted the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 ("SOX"), particularly WorldCom and Enron. Includes most of the major SOX reforms and related changes in stock exchange listing standards. Also treats selected topics such as CEO pay, activist investors (such as hedge funds), investments by sovereign foreign wealth funds, and the role of attorneys in corporate governance today. In addition, considers what the recent credit crisis tells us about corporate governance and addresses the increasing role of government as a direct investor in corporations and as a newly empowered regulator of decisions that boards of directors and CEOs used to make by themselves. Reviews reforms derived from the credit crisis, including those in the Dodd-Frank law. Each student must prepare a paper, putting it through two drafts and producing a final that meets all upper level writing requirement criteria. Students take no exam.
Prerequisites
Business Associations (602)

LAW E623 Corporate Taxation
Semester hours: 2-3
Description
Introduction to the taxation of corporations and their shareholders, from formation of the corporation to liquidation. Builds on knowledge and skills acquired in the Federal Income Taxation course by examining the tax consequences of corporate events such as formation, capital contributions, distributions, redemptions, stock dividends, and liquidations. In addition, considers substance versus form questions in structuring corporate transactions, choice of business entity issues, the debt/equity distinction, tax shelters, and Congressional and administrative responses to taxpayer behavior. Class discussion focuses on problems designed to develop and test step-by-step understanding of corporate tax fundamentals. There is an examination at the end of the course.
Prerequisites
Federal Income Taxation (LAWE600)

LAW E751 Criminal Placement Program
Semester hours: 5-7
Description
Placements with state and federal prosecutors and public defenders. Students must have completed the requirements for third year practice certification for all placements. Two-hour classroom component required. Graded pass/fail. See director of Clinical Placement Program for more details.

LAW E603 Criminal Procedure
Semester hours: 3
Description
Examines constitutional law in the criminal context, focusing on the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Topics explored include the selective incorporation doctrine, the exclusionary rule, the Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures, the Sixth Amendment right to counsel, and the Fifth and Sixth Amendment's application in the area of confessions and interrogation.

LAW E625 Criminal Process
Semester hours: 3
Description
Federal and Virginia procedures at various stages of a criminal prosecution, including bail, preliminary hearings, indictments, discovery, speedy trial, double jeopardy, plea bargaining, jury selection, venue, and jurisdiction.

LAW E785 Domestic Violence Seminar
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Explores the dynamics of domestic violence, its impact on families, and how our justice system responds to protect and punish those involved. Topics surveyed include mandatory arrest policies, victimless prosecutions, civil protective orders, and community-based services for domestic violence offenders.

LAW E627 Education Law and Policy
Semester hours: 3
Description
Legal issues surrounding education in grades K through 12, including compulsory schooling, use of tax credits and other means of financing education, religion in the schools, textbook review, freedom of expression issues, due process and discipline, and competency role in education.

LAW E755 Education Rights Clinic
Semester hours: 6
Description
The clinic represents children with mental disabilities and their families. Law students advocate for children and parents seeking appropriate special education and community-based services mandated by both federal and state law. Students also may represent youth with mental disabilities who are incarcerated or institutionalized. They sometimes serve as guardians ad litem for children with mental health needs in the justice system.

LAW E626 Election Law
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Seminar that will examine laws regulating the political process. Topics will include voting rights, reapportionment, the role of political parties and campaign finance.

LAW E628 Employment Discrimination Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Study of federal laws prohibiting workplace discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, and disability. The primary focus of the course will be on the theories of discrimination that have evolved under the various antidiscrimination laws. Also focuses on specific issues relating to particular types of discrimination such as sexual harassment, sexual orientation discrimination, retaliation and reasonable accommodation of religion and disability. Analyzes the policy underlying the laws and whether the laws are effectively achieving the statutory goal of eliminating workplace discrimination. Discusses the effective use of the federal rules of civil procedure in employment litigation. The grade will be based on a final examination and class participation.

LAW E629 Employment Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Analysis of statutory and common law regulation of the employment relationship, including employer testing and information gathering, wage and hour regulation, OSHA, workers compensation, wrongful discharge and other common law actions challenging discharge, unemployment compensation, and ERISA. Consideration of what role the law should play in various aspects of the employment relationship.

LAW E666 Energy Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Focus on the laws and policies that govern the exploitation of energy resources and the production and distribution of electricity. Includes an introduction to the structure of energy law, and in particular its unique hybrid of three types of laws: (1) natural resources laws (laws regulating individual energy resources such as coal and oil); (2) public utility laws; and (3) environmental laws. Also focuses on the laws and policies that affect resources most important to the Mid-Atlantic region, particularly the laws governing coal, natural gas, and electricity. Further study of electricity restructuring (deregulation) and the ongoing Virginia and federal experience with it (including innovative use of market mechanisms) and global climate change and its relationship to energy industries. Course Requirements: Class discussion, possible in-class simulations and exercises, and either a final paper or a final examination at the end of the semester.

LAW E700 Entertainment Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Issues of law and policy affecting the entertainment industry.
Prerequisites
Copyright Law (788) or Intellectual Property (641)

LAW E620 Environmental Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Looks at current issues in environmental law through the lenses of ecology, politics, economics, and ethics. Will confront issues such as how law regulates private economic activity, how it allocates scarce resources, and how it weighs the interests of future generations. It will examine the interaction of Congress, federal agencies, the states, and the courts in developing and implementing environmental law, and it will explore the diverse and conflicting perspectives of your potential future clients (environmental groups, government agencies, and businesses). Focuses on the major federal environmental laws, including the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, and CERCLA, the "Superfund" (toxic waste) statute.

LAW E660 Environmental Lawyering
Semester hours: 3
Description
In-depth exposure to the practice of environmental law through case-studies, simulations, and practice problems. Practice in client counseling, regulatory interpretation, drafting, negotiation, enforcement actions, litigation settlement, and legal ethics in environmental law. Class sessions will be devoted to simulations and discussions of written assignments. Case studies and problems are drawn primarily from the areas of air pollution control, endangered species, and hazardous waste regulation, with more limited coverage of other fields of environmental law. Grading will be based on writing assignments and in-class presentations, due throughout the semester. There is no final exam. Meets Lawyering Skills IV requirement.
Prerequisites
Environmental Law (LAWE 620)

LAW E634 Estate Planning
Semester hours: 2
Description
Examines a variety of estate planning topics, with an emphasis on those estate planning techniques that are most frequently used in practice. Topics include drafting wills and trust agreements for the benefit of spouses and family members to take advantage of federal gift and estate tax credits and deductions; special valuation rules, specialized trust arrangements, and buy-sell agreements.
Prerequisites
Estate and Gift Taxation (633).

LAW E633 Estate and Gift Taxation
Semester hours: 2
Description
The nature of the estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes and deal with issues that arise in connection with these taxes, such as valuing assets, calculating the tax, determining when a gift is made, qualifying for the gift tax annual exclusion, and determining which assets are included in the decedent's gross estate. Emphasis will be on general concepts and not on technical details.
Prerequisites
Federal Income Taxation (600).

LAW E734 Ethics and Criminal Litigation
Semester hours: 2
Description
Reviews some of the major ethical considerations that confront civil litigators, including ethical considerations surrounding the discovery process, ethical pleading principles, joint defense agreements, inadvertent disclosures, resolving disputes with clients regarding trial tactics, communicating with clients effectively, and setting and collecting fees. Students will examine these and similar questions by studying case opinions, selected secondary materials, applicable ABA Model Rules of Professional responsibility, and participating in weekly discussion.

LAW E724 Ethics and Family Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Delineates the ethical responsibilities of lawyers in family law cases. Issues related to the lawyer-client relationships: communication and confidentiality; conflicts of interests; controlling the case; ethical tactics; ethical negotiations; mediation; and other ethical duties of the family law practitioner are surveyed. Designed to encourage the study and elevate the standards of those who practice family law. There will be case studies and examples of issues that are presented to the practicing family lawyer on a day-to-day basis. The course will combine theory and practice as it relates to helping to guide the practicing lawyer through the maze of ethical issues that are constantly arising in the family law practice. This course is required for those students seeking the Certificate of Concentration in Family Law.
Prerequisites
Family Law (707).

LAW E599 Evidence
Semester hours: 4
Description
An introduction to the Federal Rules of Evidence. Concepts addressed include relevance, categorical rules of exclusion, character evidence, competency and credibility of witnesses, hearsay and its exceptions, privileges, authentication, and scientific evidence. May also address judicial notice and civil and criminal presumptions.

LAW E778 Family Law Clinic
Semester hours: 6
Description
Working under the supervision of the clinic director, students will represent low-income clients in the City of Richmond on family law-related matters in a multi-disciplinary collaboration with faculty-supervised graduate students from Virginia Commonwealth University's School of Social Work and Department of Psychology.

LAW E707 Family Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Examines the legal rules governing family relationships and the policies and principles underlying them. Focuses on the following topics: who can marry; the rights, duties, and obligations of marriage; the state's interest in marriage; the dissolution of marriage; property distribution upon dissolution; the arrangements between divorced parents regarding the custody, support and visitation of children; and various jurisdictional issues relating to marriage, divorce, and custody. A central inquiry of the course will explore what a "family" is, and how the definition of "family" varies according to context, reflecting social values and policy goals. Also pays special attention to policy-based and theoretical questions about families, including how race, gender, and class affect the law's regulation of families, as well as the regulation of nontraditional families. Course materials will cut across multiple legal disciplines, such as constitutional law, criminal law, and contracts.

LAW E636 Federal Courts
Semester hours: 3
Description
Brings together federal civil procedure and federal constitutional law concepts and builds upon them. Deals with the relationship between the federal courts and other institutions of government, particularly Congress, the President, administrative agencies and the states. Includes the study of judicial review, judicial independence, jurisdiction, sovereign immunity, and habeas corpus actions, among several other topics. This class is particularly appropriate for students interested in clerking for a judge, or for students who anticipate a career litigating in federal court.

LAW E600 Federal Income Taxation
Semester hours: 4
Description
Introduces students to the principles and policies of federal income taxation. Provides a framework for recognizing and dealing with tax issues and with tax-related strategies or transactions encountered in other legal practice specialties, including a basic understanding of the major theoretical and structural issues posed by an income tax, and the policy considerations involved in resolving those issues; a basic knowledge of the individual income tax treatment of various types of business and personal transactions and events (including taxation of compensation and fringe benefits, the taxation of various types of investment vehicles, debt-financed property transactions, installment sales, issues related to capitalization and cost recovery, timing issues, and selected issues regarding taxation of the family); the skills necessary to apply a complex statute; an understanding of the planning function provided by tax lawyers; the technical grounding necessary for further tax study or research.

LAW E676 First Amendment Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Examines American constitutional law pertaining to religion, speech, and the media, including the law pertaining to aid for sectarian schools, prayer in public schools, conscientious objection, censorship, association, and access to trials and state secrets.

LAW E680 Health Care Regulation
Semester hours: 2
Description
Focuses on the federal and state laws and regulations applicable to the health care industry, with a particular focus on the regulation of health care providers. Topics covered include: laws regulating referral relationships between health care providers (e.g., the federal anti-kickback statute, the federal Ethics in Patient Referrals Act and the Virginia Practitioner Self-Referral Act); the federal False Claims Act and the false claims provisions of the Social Security Act; application of the antitrust laws to health care providers; licensure of health care providers; and, state certificate of need laws.

LAW E760 Housing Law
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Explore the law and policy of housing. Considers the housing market in the United States, both for renters and for homeowners. Topics may include housing affordability, inclusionary/exclusionary zoning, the subprime mortgage crisis, government programs, and housing discrimination.

LAW E667 Human Rights Seminar
Semester hours: 3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
A general introduction to international human rights. Issues covered include nature of concept of human rights; origin and development of the International Bill of Rights; thematic procedures available for protection of human rights in the United Nations; standards and methods for international fact finding on human rights; cultural relativity in human rights law; implementation of the International Covenants on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in the United States; the Inter-American Human Rights Process; and the ability of the United States to impact human rights in Third-World countries

LAW E758 Immigration Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Explores the statutory and policy aspects and underpinnings of immigration law, including immigrant and nonimmigrant classifications, admission and exclusion issues, immigration compliance and immigration reform.

LAW E646 Innovative Technologies in Law Practice
Semester hours: 2
Description
Explores new and emerging technologies that are transforming the practice of law. Considers the role of technology as a driver of change in the legal industry, and surveys topics including automated document assembly, expert systems, e-discovery and predictive coding, virtual law firms, and online dispute resolution, among others. Students will work in teams to develop business plans for law practices that are designed to leverage innovative technologies, and present their business plans to the class. No programming or software development experience is required.

LAW E640 Insurance Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Analysis and resolution of insurance coverage disputes, involving insurance of the person life and health insurance), property insurance (i.e. homeowners and commercial property insurance) and liability insurance (i.e. automobile insurance, and commercial general liability insurance). Analysis of the formation, operation, and termination of the insurance contract; the insurable interest requirement; insurers' limitation of risk; waiver and estoppel defenses; coverage and exclusion to coverage; insurers and insureds obligations when loss occurs; and government regulation and control of the insurance industry. Taught in both a lecture-discussion and Socratic mode, with a three-hour essay examination at the course conclusion.

LAW E641 Intellectual Property Fundamentals
Semester hours: 3
Description
Survey of intellectual property law, including copyright, trademark, patent and other subject matters. Serves as the foundation course for the specialist who wishes to pursue the Intellectual Property certificate, but also a good choice for the generalist who simply wants to learn the basics of intellectual property law.

LAW E655 Intellectual Property Law and Policy Seminar
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Examines the legal and public policy considerations regarding intellectual property protection in various fields and industries. In particular, explores whether intellectual property protection and enforcement is beneficial and necessary for the creation, development, and commercialization of different ideas, expressions, and other intangibles.

LAW E699-G Intellectual Property Litigation Practicum
Semester hours: 3
Description
Special Topic. Exposure to intellectual property litigation practice through simulation. Skills will include interviewing and counseling client; recognizing causes of action, potential counter-claims, and defenses; figuring out jurisdiction and venue issues; preparing discovery; and drafting pre-trial motions. Grading will be based on writing assignments and class participation in simulation exercises. Meets Lawyering Skills IV requirement.
Prerequisites
IP Fundamentals or at least one of Patent Law, Copyright Law, or Trademark & Unfair Competition Law

LAW E790 Intellectual Property and Transactional Law Clinic
Semester hours: 6
Description
Students represent for-profit and nonprofit organizations, as well as social entrepreneurs, artists, authors and inventors from a variety of backgrounds. Students will help business startup clients by engaging in business formation counseling. Students provide legal services to clients, including negotiating and drafting contracts, providing corporate legal services and analysis, and facilitating strategic decision-making. Students assist clients in the assessment and potential licensing of a variety of intellectual property rights. The classroom seminar will provide clinic students the opportunity to study and reflect on the theoretical framework and application of related substantive subjects.

LAW E757 International Arbitration
Semester hours: 2
Description
Gives an introduction to the main characteristics of international arbitration. In the first part of the semester, we will examine the advantages and disadvantages of arbitration, and why parties may prefer arbitration. We will then look at the arbitration agreement, the process of arbitration, and the enforcement of arbitral awards. This course will review both commercial and investment arbitration and survey the main various arbitral tribunals and their rules, including ICSID, ICC, and ILCA. Examination.

LAW E756 International Business Practice
Semester hours: 4
Description
A hands-on opportunity to develop strategies for Virginia companies seeking to expand their businesses in foreign markets. Students meet with a Virginia business client to define the scope of their project, identify legal issues, research foreign and domestic laws, develop legal strategies, and then present their findings to the client¿s executives and senior management. Law students team with MBA students from a participating business school to prepare international business plans and then co-present their work to the client. The teams prepare and deliver comprehensive presentations of their strategies and the legal issues they have identified as the capstone to their work.

LAW E642 International Business Transactions
Semester hours: 3
Description
Problems in international trade and investment; regulation of international trade by national governments and international agencies. Emphasis on lawyer's role in counseling firms engaged in international activities.

LAW E738 International Courts and Tribunals
Semester hours: 2
Description
Introduction to existing international courts and tribunals and their jurisdiction, including courts that have general jurisdiction to hear inter-state disputes (the International Court of Justice, the Permanent Court of Arbitration, ad hoc bodies) and courts and tribunals that have specialized subject-matter jurisdiction. Examines courts and tribunals competent to hear international criminal law, including the International Criminal Court, ICTY and ICTR. Analyzes regional courts and tribunals that hear cases related to human rights abuses. Also studies investment disputes (state/investor) and the principle available fori, including ICSID and NAFTA and ad hoc tribunals and claims commissions, such as the Iran-US tribunal, the UN Compensation Commission.

LAW E699-B International Criminal Justice & Transnational Justice
Semester hours: 3
Description
Special Topic. Examines international criminal law, first substantially (what are subjects, sources, crimes) and then procedurally (including at the ICC, ICTY, ICTR). In the second part of the course, we will focus on certain post-conflict situations (e.g. Rwanda, Iraq, Afghanistan) and analyze issues of transitional justice and application of international criminal law there.

LAW E729 International Environmental Law
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets Upper Level Writing Requirement
Description
Explores how the international community has managed and mismanaged global environmental problems since the watershed UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. Involves a mix of readings, discussions, and simulations in various fields of international environmental law, with a particular focus on climate change, biodiversity, and international regulation of toxic hazards. Cross-cutting themes include North/South disputes, the precautionary principle, liability as a compliance mechanism, and the involvement of non-state actors in creating and implementing international environmental law. The major assignment for the course will be a seminar research paper.

LAW E722 International Intellectual Property
Semester hours: 2-3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Aspects of both public and private international law, as well as efforts to harmonize intellectual property over multiple countries and comparative aspects, considering basic differences in approaches to intellectual property in both national and international systems. Will cover all major international IP regimes (WIPO, WTO, the EU), as well as the major areas of intellectual property law (patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret). Will also touch on the interaction between trade policy and IP law. Other topics may include areas of current interest, such as compulsory licensing of patented medication, protection of traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, or issues related to the World Wide Web.
Prerequisites
Intellectual Property Fundamentals (641) or at least two of the following: Patent Law (744), Copyright Law (788), or Trademark Law (710).

LAW E643 International Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Basic principles, including sources of international law, settlement of international disputes, responsibilities and immunities of sovereign states, human rights, and the machinery of international law and justice.

LAW E670 Interviewing and Counseling
Semester hours: 2
Description
In-depth analysis of pretrial lawyering skills using interdisciplinary materials. Explores interpersonal relationships, focusing on role of attorney in relation to client, the legal system (including other attorneys), and society. Classroom discussion and development of own skills through weekly audio- and video-taped simulations. Enrollment limited.

LAW E764 John Marshall Scholars Seminar
Semester hours: 0
Description
A seminar on various legal topics for the John Marshall Scholars.

LAW E752 Judicial Placement Program
Semester hours: 5-7
Description
Placements are offered in the chambers of both state and federal judges. Students assume the role of a law clerk. Opportunities are available at both the trial and appellate levels. Two-hour classroom component required. Graded pass/fail. See director of Clinical Placement Program for more details.

LAW E644 Labor Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Analysis of origin and scope of National Labor Relations Act and role of the National Labor Relations Board and the courts in interpreting the statute. Focus on right of employees to organize unions, choice of bargaining representative, strikes and picketing, and negotiation and enforcement of collective bargaining agreement.

LAW E645 Land Use Planning
Semester hours: 2-3
Description
Government control of use of land and eminent domain. Zoning, subdivision control, and urban redevelopment and planning.

LAW E696 Law Firm as a Business
Semester hours: 2
Description
Focuses on many of the practical, nonlegal aspects of law practice to include information on financial management, administration, technology, insurance, marketing, and issues related to the firm owners including compensation and agreements. Guest presenters will be experts in their particular fields who will share practical experiences in their respective areas.

LAW E794 Law Review
Semester hours: 1-2

LAW E665 Law of Clean and Renewable Energy
Semester hours: 3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Satisfies the Law Skills IV requirement.
Description
Explores the challenges and opportunities that come with new policies seeking to promote renewable energy and transition to a low-carbon electricity system. Covers attributes of specific types of renewable energy (including wind, solar, and biofuels) and mandates and goals for renewable energy (including renewable portfolio standards and feed-in tariffs); federal, state, and local demand response laws, including their relationship to the Smart Grid; state and federal laws governing the siting and permitting of renewable energy facilities; tax and other incentives for demand response and renewables; ratemaking, wholesale markets and other aspects of the sale of electricity; and financing mechanisms for transactions involving efficiency and renewables.

LAW E637 Law of Educational Equity
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets Upper Level Writing Requirement.
Description
Analyzes the current law and policy debates that are shaping elementary and secondary education in the United States. Focuses on systemic issues of educational opportunity, such as race and sex discrimination, school finance and school choice. Also explores the role of the government, particularly the courts, in American education. Although the course focuses on the legal and policy decisions that governments, school districts and students are confronting today, it also includes a historical perspective where necessary to inform our understanding of the current issues.

LAW E682 Law of War
Semester hours: 2
Description
Contemporary law of armed conflict, surveying briefly jus ad bello, i.e., theories of aggression, just war & reprisal. Emphasizes jus in bello, including certain rules of engagement (targeting and neutrality), the rights of captured persons and civilians, and institutions for national and international management. Grades will be awarded by reference to either a term paper or several shorter essays.

LAW E693 Law of the European Union
Semester hours: 2
Description
(Offered only in Cambridge Summer Program). Surveys institutions of the EU and examines substantive principles of EU law and their integration into the legal systems of member countries.

LAW E712 Legal History Seminar
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Focuses on microhistory as a technique for exploring the role of law in society. A microhistory is a case study of a particular incident that sheds light on broader issues of race, class, gender, economics, and power. Explores the various ways that legal historians use case studies to enlarge our understanding of the past.

LAW E592 Legal History
Semester hours: 3
Description
Explores the history of the common law and the development of Anglo-American legal institutions. Focuses on the evolution of the jury system and the distinction between law and equity.

LAW E662 Legislative Advocacy
Semester hours: 3
Description
Provides students the opportunity to develop the practical knowledge base and skills to be able to represent clients and themselves in legislative and regulatory processes. The context for classes will be Virginia state government. Classes will consist of a combination of lectures by the professor and guests as well as participatory exercises such as role plays. Skills to be taught within the public policy context will include listening, negotiation, legislative drafting, lobbying and testifying before committees. Grades will be based on class participation and written work, including weekly entries in a journal, to be kept throughout the semester.

LAW E673 Licensing and Technology Transfer
Semester hours: 2
Description
Will help equip students to manage creatively the impact of intellectual property on personal, business, and public life through contracting. Cases and problems illustrate processes involved in negotiating and formalizing domestic and international licenses in patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. Consideration given to issues associated with UCITA, software, music and multimedia licensing, as well as valuing, selling, and monetizing intellectual property assets.

LAW E652 Local Government Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Focuses on legal issues in local government law with a practical approach. Covers a variety of topics that are relevant to local government law, except for education law and environmental law. Thorough research skills and the ability to identify and analyze legal issues are critical requirements in this course.

LAW E762 Medical Malpractice
Semester hours: 2
Description
Liability of physician for injuries arising out of the physician patient relationship. Includes coverage of standard of care, causation, informed consent, intentional torts, and recoverable damages.

LAW E705 Mergers and Acquisitions
Semester hours: 2-3
Description
Focuses on the law governing corporate mergers, acquisitions, recapitalizations, and proxy contests. Discussion will include transaction structure, purchase agreements, stockholder litigation, and relevant state and federal laws, with a primary focus on fiduciary duties in the context of buying and selling a business.
Prerequisites
Business Associations (602)

LAW E649 Mindfulness and the Legal Profession
Semester hours: 3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets Upper Level Writing Requirement.
Description
Provides a framework for envisioning a professional identity that is in harmony with our personal, spiritual, and communal values. Using creative writing and mindfulness meditation tools, we revisit our original reasons for pursuing a legal education, reflect on our law school experience and on the law as an intellectual discipline and as a service profession, and articulate aspirations for our future careers. Topical discussions will be geared to seminar participants' specific interests (e.g., past topics included personal injury law, family law, international law, and gender and race relations). Students are required to submit response papers before each class meeting and a final essay.

LAW E735 National Security Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Offers an analysis of the interplay of law and national security. It will include coverage of such issues as: terrorism offenses, espionage, collection of evidence in international cases, interrogation techniques, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, protection and use of classified evidence in federal court, the right to counsel and national security defendants, military detention, and trials of cases involving national security.

LAW E795 Negotiation Competition
Semester hours: 1-2

LAW E672 Negotiation
Semester hours: 2
Description
Introduction to the theory and practice of negotiations. Game theory, economic model bargaining, social-psychological theories and the problem-solving negotiation theory are each studied. Explores the different negotiation styles, techniques of preparation and information gathering, persuasion and the process of exchange in bargaining. Both dispute resolution and transactional negotiations are reviewed.

LAW E771 Nonprofit Organizations
Semester hours: 3
Description
Examines the nature, formation, governance and operation of nonprofit organizations. Topics include the law governing nonprofits; the skills necessary to create, operate, and advocate for nonprofit organizations; determining the legal form of the organization; tax exempt status; fundraising (charitable giving, solicitations, legal regulation of such activities); duties and responsibilities of the board of directors; liability of nonprofit organizations; and ethical issues for nonprofits. The class is designed for both law students and business students. Guest speakers from area nonprofits will supplement the readings and discussion. Readings will include case studies, as well as cases and articles from legal and business sources. A field trip to a nonprofit organization may be taken. Class project involves a case study of a nonprofit, advising the nonprofit organization on legal and business issues and where appropriate, assisting the nonprofit in organizing, establishing organizational and operational documents, filing for tax exempt status, and/or creating operational policies. The final grade will be based on class participation, written responses to case studies, and the students' work on the class projects.

LAW E744 Patent Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Covers fundamental doctrines of patent law and is designed to serve as a basic course for those who wish to specialize in this field, as well as to provide a general background for a corporate or business practice. Topics will include eligible subject matter for patenting; conditions for patentability, including utility, novelty, non-obviousness, enablement, best mode, definiteness, and adequate written description; patent infringement; defenses; and remedies. Will study statutory aspects of patent law, as well as judicial interpretation by the Supreme Court and the Federal Circuit Court. Further, course will consider justifications for the patent monopoly. An engineering or science background is not required to take the course.

LAW E787 Patent Preparation and Prosecution
Semester hours: 2
Description
Explores the art of drafting a patent application and the subsequent prosecution of the application through the Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Will include some necessary detail with respect to PTO Rules, but will also cover the strategy and reasoning behind various drafting techniques. Directed to students who plan to become patent practitioners as well as those who are simply interested in the process.
Prerequisites
LAWE 641 or LAWE 744

LAW E601 PreTrial Drafting
Semester hours: 3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Satisfies the Law Skills IV requirement.
Description
Enhances understanding of critical pretrial tools and provides practical experience with using these tools. Course requires drafting a variety of pretrial documents that are frequently used in litigation, such as a complaint, and a pretrial motion. Also provides practice of such skills as interviewing clients and negotiating settlements. Focuses on the correct use of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure but relevant in state court litigation as well.

LAW E654 Products Liability Law
Semester hours: 2-3
Description
Analyzes the affirmative cause of action for personal injuries caused by defective products, applicable defenses, and other relevant theoretical, policy and practical issues. Emphasis is on strict liability in tort under Section 402A of the Restatement of Torts and national developments; however, relevant Virginia developments will be assessed.

LAW E639 Public Policy Research and Drafting
Semester hours: 3
Description
Combines both advanced legal research and writing instruction with a client-based experience. Provides students with an opportunity to explore advanced legal research in the public policy field, develop their writing skills in the context of creating an issue paper, and engage in client relations with nonprofit organizations from the greater Richmond community.

LAW E765 Race, Religion and the Law
Semester hours: 3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Focuses on the intersection of race and religion, and their impact on the law as expressed in American judicial decisions. To facilitate this inquiry, the course furnishes historical background regarding the evolution of the concept of race in western societies, especially Europe and the United States. Also addresses how religious traditions, notably Christianity, have impacted the understanding of race.

LAW E611 Real Estate Transfers and Finance
Semester hours: 2-3
Description
Surveys modern real estate transactions, such as condominiums, cooperatives, sales and leasebacks, leasehold mortgages, FHA and VA financing, tax consequences, title insurance, construction loan agreements, and shopping center leases.

LAW E725 Regulating Reproduction
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets Upper Level Writing Requirement.
Description
Study of the interrelationship of legal rules, politics, ideology, and socio-economic realities that shape reproductive rights and justice. Explores the meaning of "reproductive rights" and "reproductive justice," and considers a wide spectrum of related topics, including types of abortion restrictions upheld since Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey, access to contraception and reproductive health services, new reproductive technologies, and the U.S. government's role in reproductive rights, among others.

LAW E656 Remedies
Semester hours: 3
Description
Putting legal theory into the practical context of its ultimate remedy for the client, covers primarily equitable remedies Covers the equitable remedies of bills of peace, receiverships, injunctions to enforce contracts, injunctions to prevent torts, constructive trusts to prevent unjust enrichment, restitution, equitable defenses, contempt of court, etc and a broad range of general legal topics, including the remedies available for breach of contract, commission of torts, waste and nuisance to property, civil procedure (injunctions and contempt of court), etc. Looks at the broad areas of the law from the point of view of the remedy available to the litigant. Method of Assessment: The students argue each of the cases, and then there is class discussion. At the end of the course, each student will be required to write a 1,000 word essay on some topic of equity, and there will also be an examination.

LAW E780 Research Assistant
Semester hours: 1-4
Description
Students may assist professors on the full-time faculty in their scholarly research efforts, either for pay (under the University Work Study Program), or for academic credit, though not for both at the same time. Students may earn up to four hours of academic credit toward their degree requirements by serving as unpaid research assistants. The credit hours may be pass/fail or graded, at the option of the student, and with the permission of the professor. Graded credit hours require a written work product by the student that will enable the professor to determine an appropriate grade. To receive academic credit, the student must work an average of four hours per week throughout the semester, for each hour of academic credit earned. Registration is with permission of the professor and the dean's office. Limit of four semester hours total.

LAW E796 Research
Semester hours: 1-3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement if taken for 2 or 3 sem. hrs.
Description
Independent research on approved selected topics. Topic must be approved in writing prior to registration by the associate dean and by the instructor under whose supervision the research is conducted. Limit of three semester hours total for independent research projects.

LAW E706 Role of Lawyer in Mediation
Semester hours: 2
Description
Covers the role of the lawyer in mediation. Designed to provide students with skills necessary to effectively represent their client in the mediation process. Will explore differences between interest-based and positional negotiation. Stages of the mediation process and the role of the mediator will be reviewed. Additional areas that will be addressed include the attorney's ethical obligation to inform clients about dispute resolution options, factors that should be considered in assessing whether a case is appropriate for mediation, preparing for mediation, collaborative problem-solving, and effective strategies in representing clients in the mediation process. Students will engage in a series of mock mediations to develop their advocacy skills and will be introduced to various applications of mediation by the courts, state agencies and private entities.

LAW E675 Sales and Leases
Semester hours: 3
Description
Articles 2 (Sales) and 2A (Leases) of the Uniform Commercial Code, including the structure and methodology of the Uniform Commercial Code, as it is reflected in Articles 2 and 2A, and the Code's relationship to, similarities with, and differences from the general law of contract, property and tort.

LAW E657 Scientific Evidence
Semester hours: 2
Description
Technical and legal aspects of scientific aids in the trial of civil and criminal cases. Scientific experts participate as guest lecturers.
Prerequisites
LAWE 599

LAW E677 Secured Transactions
Semester hours: 3
Description
An introduction to the law governing contractually created interests in personal property used to secure payment or performance of obligations. Study of the creation, perfection, priority and enforcement of security interests in personal property under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code. Also includes an examination of relevant provisions of the Bankruptcy Code and some other state and federal statutes that affect security interests.

LAW E658 Securities Regulation
Semester hours: 3
Description
Discussion of the theory of disclosure, examination of information that is important to investors ("material" in securities lingo), and investments that fall within the definition of a "security" under federal law. Considers, mandatory disclosure by public companies; antifraud statutes (some of which apply only to public companies and some to both public and private companies); Rule 10b-5 (complete with some insider trading law); the law governing public offerings of securities; the exemptions that permit a company to sell securities outside the elaborate registration process that governs public offerings; and the rules governing re-sales. Focuses exclusively on federal law and its variety (statutes, rules and regulations, court rulings, SEC staff bulletins, no action letters, comment letters, etc.). Also considers selected aspects of enforcement of the securities laws by the SEC, the federal criminal authorities, and private lawsuits.
Prerequisites
Business Associations (LAWE 602)

LAW E769 Selected Issues in European Union Law
Semester hours: 2-3
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Seminar presenting overview of the law of the European Union. Covers both aspects of EU Law: the institutional or "constitutional" aspects and substantive law. In the first portion the roles of the EU's four principal institutions are considered, as are their relations to the governments of the member states and the lawmaking process. This portion provides insights into issues of federalism as understood in this country. The second aspect covered, the substantive law of the EU covers topics including competition, intellectual property, workers' rights, and the monetary union. Topics covered are those thought to be of most relevance to U.S. interests doing business within the EU.

LAW E719 Selected Issues in Public International Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
(Offered only in Cambridge.) Consideration of various discrete issues of public international law, including statehood, boundaries, the law of war, jurisdiction and state responsibility, and their relation to municipal law.

LAW E699 Selected Topics (ST)
Semester hours: 2-3
Description
The law school generally offers one course which may be offered only one time. These courses are in an area of special interest to a faculty member. Details are provided in the registration materials. Depending on this particular offering, this course may meet the upper-level writing requirement.

LAW E615 Selected Topics in Virginia Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
A substantive overview of topics heavily tested on the Virginia Bar Exam.

LAW E699-C Sex, Mindfulness, and the Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Historically, Western societies' main mechanism for regulating sex and reproduction was marriage. In recent decades, the criterion for socially legitimate sex has shifted from marriage to consent. What is consent? If non¬-consensual sex is bad, does that mean that all consensual sex is good, or at least neutral? How does, and how should the law shape sexual culture? This course uses legal theory, mindfulness meditation and communication practices, and creative writing to examine these issues, with a special focus on the implementation of Title IX on college campuses generally, and at the University of Richmond in particular.

LAW E740 Sexual Orientation and the Law
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Seminar examines legal rights of lesbians and gay men. Explores concept of sexual orientation and legal system's regulation of life experiences of lesbians and gay men, including sexuality, expressions of identity, public and private employment, same-sex relationships, and parenting.

LAW E730 Spanish Legal Skills
Semester hours: 3
Description
One semester course learning targeted legal subjects in Spanish. Topics include immigration law, family law, labor law, contract law and criminal law and use materials written by Latin American Professors of Law and notable US attorneys. Lectures delivered in Spanish. Each class will be a combination of an academic presentation and a practical exercise exposing students to the practicalities of dealing with Hispanic clients including cultural differences of the Hispanic population. Students are assessed on a weekly basis by completing exercises which will cover: drafting memos, short essays and client letters in Spanish; preparing presentations for Hispanic audiences attending the pro bono legal clinics at the Virginia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce; and a final project. Students will have the opportunity to participate in the pro bono legal clinics offered by the Virginia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce with the support of leading law firms from Richmond twice a month and may work alongside attorneys interviewing Hispanic clients seeking legal advice on immigration, labor and family matters.

LAW E690 Sports and the Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
A survey course addressing legal issues presented by both professional and amateur sports in a variety of settings. Examines such issues as the legal concept of amateurism, the organization of amateur sports associations, and eligibility for participation as an amateur, especially in the context of intercollegiate athletics Also focuses on gender and disability discrimination issues, the organization of professional sports with the power of the commissioner and the organization of leagues. The application of antitrust law to amateur and professional sports will also be examined, along with issues presented by the representation of professional athletes and the enforcement of sports contracts. Criminal and tort liability issues presented by sports participation will also be discussed, along with workers compensation and drug testing issues.

LAW E779 Summer Abroad Placement Program
Semester hours: 4
Description
Placements are available with law firms/chambers; government related agencies and organizations, such as the House of Commons and Crown Prosecution Services; law societies; citizens' advice bureaus; royal courts; property management and development firms, financial institutions; and the legal departments of media and entertainment firms. Two-hour weekly classroom component required. Graded pass/fail. See director of Clinical Placement Program for more details.

LAW E697 Supreme Court Decisionmaking
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets Upper Level Writing Requirement.
Description
Examines the Supreme Court as an institution and the nature of judicial review as an institutional practice. In addition to traditional doctrinal materials, draws on a mix of historical, biographical, and journalistic materials. Topics to be studied include the Court's agenda-setting process, the deliberative and opinion-writing process, the roles of law clerks and the Supreme Court bar, and institutional challenges for the future.

LAW E674 Tax Policy Seminar
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
Designed for students generally interested in public policy issues as well as for those specializing in tax. Focuses on the policies and structures of a well designed tax system; examines the goals, politics, and history of tax reform; and provides an overview of the central policy issues raised by income-based and consumption-based tax systems.

LAW E635 Taxation of Non Corporate Entities
Semester hours: 2-3
Description
Nature and formation of a partnership; taxation of partnership income; transactions between related parties; termination of partnership; sale of partnership interest; distribution by partnership; special basis adjustment; and distribution to retiring or deceased partners. Also includes treatment of pass-through entities.
Prerequisites
Federal Income Taxation (600).

LAW E699-T Technology Practicum: Veterans Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Special Topic. Introduces students to the law relating to veterans' benefits and selected other legal issues affecting veterans. The course also includes a significant technology-based experiential component in which students will use a software platform to explore the potential of automated legal guidance systems. Students will work in teams to create applications that provide guidance on particular legal issues to veterans or to attorneys who help veterans. The course will involve classroom sessions along with collaborative work time outside of class and field research to identify veterans law issues to be addressed by team-created applications. No programming or coding experience is required.

LAW E699-Q The Criminal Client Relationship
Semester hours: 2
Description
Designed to educate the student as to the importance of developing positive client relationships in order to fulfill their responsibilities as attorneys and counselors at law. Importance and methods of developing positive relationships with clients will be taught through a combination of lecture, demonstration, small group discussions of hypothetical situations, and participation in mock client interviews. Lectures will include ethical considerations as well as the requirements of the Standards of Practice for Indigent Defense Representation with respect to client communications and relationships. Special attention will be given to the challenges presented by clients with mental health issues and juvenile criminal defendants. The importance of developing and utilizing good interpersonal communication skills, both verbal and non-verbal, will be highlighted.

LAW E699-Y Trademark Law
Semester hours: 2
Description
Special Topic. Intended to enable students to become familiar with the academic principles of trademark law.

LAW E768 Trademark and Unfair Competition Law
Semester hours: 3
Description
Will cover federal and common-law trademark law, trade secrets, and unfair competition. Within the unfair competition section, topics will include interference with contractual relations, trade libel, unfair competition under the Lanham Act, publicity rights, and consumer protection. Will also examine public policies and economic considerations underlying these rules that govern competition within the marketplace. In addition to these basic topics, will cover areas of current interest, such as the application of traditional principles to non traditional media, i.e. the Internet.

LAW E710 Trademark, Copyright, and Trade Secrets Practice
Semester hours: 2
Description
Will focus on developing and refining practical skills, including conducting intellectual property audits, filing domestic and Madrid Protocol applications with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, trademark examination rules and procedures, conducting opposition proceedings, copyright filings, franchising issues, developing and implementing trade secrets policies and programs for businesses, licensing, and ethics.

LAW E699-P Transactional Drafting
Semester hours: 3
Description
Special Topic. Builds on the core contract concepts in Contract Drafting by allowing students to delve deeper into the contractual and business issues that transactional lawyers routinely face. Explores representations and warranties, indemnity, and the endgame, specifically focusing on the business issues that support those types of provisions and how they are used to allocate risk in a deal. A focus on ethical issues in transactional practice will be a continuous theme. Ethical issues include conflicts of interest, waiver of conflict, attorney-client privilege, representing multiple parties, negotiation tactics.

LAW E664 Virginia Procedure
Semester hours: 3
Description
Specialized course in Virginia civil procedure which covers the subject of procedure from the point of view of practice in the Virginia state courts. Covers every aspect of procedure from self-help, subject matter jurisdiction, active jurisdiction, service of process, venue, parties, pleading, discovery, pre-trial motions, motions at trial, post-verdict motions, judgments, costs, and appeals Taught by lecture and discussion.

LAW E699-J Voting Rights
Semester hours: 3
Description
Special Topic. Study of contemporary American voting rights law. Traces the history of voting rights law in the United States; considers how the passage of various Amendments to the United States Constitution and the passage and reauthorizations of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 have affected how voting rights are defined and provided by states; considers how those laws have affected how states distribute political power through redistricting. The remainder of the course will focus on how the development of voting rights law will likely affect the future of voting rights in America.

LAW E687 White Collar Crime
Semester hours: 3
Description
Study of what are generally considered to be business or organizational crimes. Topics to be explored may include: mail and wire fraud, conspiracy, public corruption, perjury (including false statements and false claims liability), money laundering, federal sentencing guidelines, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, grand jury practice and internal investigations.

LAW E606 Wills and Trusts
Semester hours: 3-4
Description
Considers the transmission of property when an owner dies: laws of intestate distribution that are applied where there is no will; the use of wills , including rules of execution, change and interpretation; and the intention and use of trusts, with emphasis on the role of trusts in estate planning.

LAW E774 Wrongful Conviction Clinic
Semester hours: 2
Description
With supervision from the director of the Institute of Actual Innocence, students will screen, investigate and, when possible, help prepare cases for post-conviction litigation under Virginia's Writs of Actual Innocence. Litigation work is only possible when a case has matured to that level. Students will work in teams. The cases selected for investigation and litigation are those where there is substantial evidence of innocence. Prerequisite: First priority for enrollment goes to students who have completed the Wrongful Conviction Seminar (770). Students who have not completed the seminar must obtain approval to enroll in the clinic.
Prerequisites
First priority for enrollment goes to students who have completed the Wrongful Conviction Seminar (770). Students who have not completed the seminar must obtain approval to enroll in the clinic.

LAW E770 Wrongful Conviction Seminar
Semester hours: 2
Fullfills General Education Requirement Meets upper-level writing requirement
Description
A topical introductory course addressing the causes of wrongful convictions. The readings are multi-disciplinary and heavily drawn from law review articles. Class participation is an important piece. The class has several guest speakers who address public policy issues in the area of wrongful convictions. Those who take this course have priority for the spring clinic, but students not planning on the clinic are also encouraged to enroll. There is no final exam.