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 Carl W. Tobias
Carl W. Tobias
Williams Professor of Law
Courses Taught Torts Products Liability Constitutional Law
Profile

Professor Carl Tobias holds the Law School’s prestigious Williams Chair and writes in a number of areas, with a particular emphasis on federal judicial selection. A prolific scholar, Professor Tobias is the author of over 120 law review articles and the author or co-author of more than 80 essays, commentaries, and other shorter works in law reviews. He has published in the country’s top law journals, including the Stanford, Columbia, California, and Cornell Law Reviews, among others. Professor Tobias is also a frequent commentator in the media and has written several hundred opinion pieces published in the Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Christian Science Monitor, Slate and Politico, among other high-profile media outlets. He has served as a Legal Consultant to the Food and Drug Administration and the American Bar Association’s Commission on the Twenty-First Century Judiciary as well as a member of the District Court Local Rules Review Committee of the Ninth Circuit Chief District Judges Conference, the Civil Justice Reform Act Advisory Group for the U.S. District Court for the District of Montana, and the Study Committee to Review the Nevada Rules of Civil Procedure. Professor Tobias has been a member of the prestigious American Law Institute since 1994.

Memberships
Reporter, National Confernce on Appellate Justice (2005 - present)
Member, American Law Institute (1994 - present)
Member, Civil Justice Reform Act Advisory Group, United States District Court for the District of Montana (1994 - present)
Reporter, Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology and Government, Task Force on Science and Technology in Judicial and Regulatory Decision Making, Data Collection Discussion Group (1992 - present)
Counsel, U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Separtaion of Powers (1975 - present)
Legal Consultant, ABA Commission on the Twenty- First Century Judiciary (2002 - 2003)
Member, Study Committee to Review the Nevada Rules of Civil Procedure (1999 - 2003)
Member, District Court Local Rules Review Committee, Ninth Circuit Judicial Council (1994 - 1997)
Legal Consultant, Adminsitrative Confernce of the United States (1990 - 1995)
Director, Montana Natural Resources Clinic (Environmental Law Clinic under National Wildlife Federation auspices (1980 - 1982)
Legal Consultant, Office of General Counsel, U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration (1976 - 1982)
Counsel, Virginia Wetlands Study Commission and Virginia Senate Argriculture, Conservation and Natural Resources Committee (1971 - 1972)
Professional Experience
Williams Professor of Law (2004 - present)
University of Richmond School of Law, Richmond, VA
Visiting Williams Professor of Law (2003 - 2004)
University of Richmond School of Law, Richmond, VA
Professor of Law (1998 - 2004)
William S. Boyd School of Law, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV
Professor of Law (1975 - 1998)
University of Montana School of Law,, Missoula, MT
General Civil Litigation and General Environmental Work (1972 - 1975)
Hunton and Williams, Richmond, VA
Publications
Journal Articles

Fill the New York Federal District Court Vacancies, N.Y.U. Journal of Legislation & Public Policy Quorum (2020).

Filling the California Federal District Court Vacancies, 11 California Law Review Online 68 (2020).

Filling the Federal District Court Vacancies, 22 N.Y.U. Journal of Legislation & Public Policy (2020).

Filling the Federal District Court Vacancies, 22 N.Y.U. Journal of Legislation & Public Policy 421 (2020).

The Blue Slip Blues, Yale Law & Policy Review Inter Alia (2020).

The Federal Law Clerk Hiring Pilot and The Coronavirus Pandemic, 54 UC Davis Law Review Online 54 (2020).

Filling the California Ninth Circuit Vacancies, 92 Southern California Law Review Postscript 83 (2019).

Filling the Ninth Circuit Vacancies , 27 William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 1113 (2019).

President Donald Trump's War on Federal Judicial Diversity, 54 Wake Forest Law Review 531 (2019).

Senator Chuck Grassley and Judicial Confirmations, 104 Iowa Law Review Online 31 (2019).

Filling the New York Federal District Court Vacancies, 76 Washington and Lee Law Review Online 1 (2019).

Curing the Federal Court Vacancy Crisis, 53 Wake Forest Law Review 883 (2018).

Marriage Equality Comes to the Fourth Circuit, 75 Washington & Lee Law Review 2005 (2018).

Senate Blue Slips and Senate Regular Order, Yale Law and Policy Review Inter Alia (2018).

President Donald Trump and Federal Bench Diversity, 74 Washington & Lee Law Review Online 400 (2018).

The Blue Slip Blues, 36 Yale Law & Policy Review Inter Alia (2018).

Filling the Texas Federal Court Vacancies, 95 Texas Law Review 170 (2017).

Combatting the Ninth Circuit Judicial Vacancy Crisis, 73 Washington & Lee Law Review Online 678 (2017).

Confirming Judge Restrepo in the Third Circuit, 88 Temple Law Review Online (2017).

Confirming Supreme Court Justices in a Presidential Election Year, 94 Washington University Law Review 1089 (2017).

Filling the Seventh Circuit Vacancies, 2017 Wisconsin Law Review 225 (2017).

Marriage Equality Comes to the Fourth Circuit, 95 North Carolina Law Review (2017).

Nominate Judge Koh to the Ninth Circuit Again, 74 Washington & Lee Law Review Online 64 (2017).

Recalibrating Judicial Renominations in the Trump Administration, 74 Washington & Lee Law Review Online 678 (2017).

Confirm Judge Koh for the Ninth Circuit, 73 Washington & Lee Law Review Online 449 (2016).

Confirm Myra Selby for the Seventh Circuit, 92 Indiana Law Journal Supplement 27 (2016).

Confirming Circuit Judges in a Presidential Election Year, 84 George Washington Law Review Arguendo 160 (2016).

Confirming Judges In The 2016 Senate Lame Duck Session, 19 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law Online 1 (2016).

Fixing the Federal Judicial Selection Process, 65 Emory Law Journal Online (2016).

The Republican Senate and Regular Order, 101 Iowa Law Review Online 12 (2016).

Transforming the Thurmond Rule in 2016, 66 Emory Law Journal Online 2001 (2016).

Filling the Federal Court in a Presidential Election Year, 50 University of Richmond Law Review (2016).

Certiorari and the Marriage Equality Cases, 48 University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform Online 28 (2015).

Electing Justice Roush to the Supreme Court of Virginia, 72 Washington and Lee Law Review Online 360 (2015).

Filling the D.C. Circuit Vacancies, 91 Indiana Law Journal 121 (2015).

Filling the Federal Appellate Court Vacancies, 17 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law Online 1 (2015).

Implementing Marriage Equality in America, 65 Duke Law Journal Online 25 (2015).

Judicial Selection in Congress' Lame Duck Session, 90 Indiana Law Journal Supplement 52 (2015).

Marriage Equality Comes to America, 6 Houston Law Review 13 (2015).

Marriage Equality Comes to Virginia, 49 University of Richmond Law Review 1193 (2015).

Marriage Equality Comes to Wisconsin, 2015 Wisconsin Law Review Forward 81 (2015).

Considering Patricia Millet for the D.C. Circuit, 4 Wake Forest Law Review Online 11 (2014).

Filling the District of Arizona Vacancies, 56 Arizona Law Review Syllabus 4 (2014).

Salvaging the 2013 Federal Law Clerk Hiring Season, 91 Washington University Law Review 243 (2013).

Senate Gridlock and Federal Judicial Selection, 88 Notre Dame Law Review 2233 (2013).

Tips for Capturing 2014 Federal Court Clerkships, 66 Vanderbilt Law Review En Banc 145 (2013).

Commentary: Considering Lesbian, Gay, Transgender, and Bisexual Nominees for the Federal Courts, 90 Washington University Law Review 577 (2012).

Filling the Judicial Vacancies in a Presidential Election year, 46 University of Richmond Law Review 985 (2012).

Justifying Diversity in the Federal Judiciary, 106 Northwestern University Law Review Colloquy 383 (2012).

Saluting Judge Philip Pro's Quarter Century of Nevada District Service, 12 Nevada Law Journal 511 (2012).

Essay: Judge Thompson and the Appellate Court Confirmation Process, 91 Boston University Law Review 243 (2011).

Filling the Fourth Circuit Vacancies, 89 North Carolina Law Review 2161 (2011).

A Fourth Circuit Photograph, 45 Wake Forest Law Review 1373 (2010).

Diversity and the Federal Bench, 87 Washington University Law Review 1197 (2010).

Fourth Circuit Judicial Appointments, 61 South Carolina Law Review 445 (2010).

Postpartisan Federal Judicial Selection, 51 Boston College Law Review 769 (2010).

Filling Federal Appellate Vacancies, 41 Arizona State Law Journal 829 (2009).

Resolving Amicus Curiae Motions in the Third Circuit and Beyond, 1 Drexel Law Review 125 (2009).

Dear President Bush: Leaving a Legacy on the Federal Bench, 42 University of Richmond Law Review 1041 (2008).

FDA Regulatory Compliance Reconsidered, 93 Cornell Law Review 1003 (2008).

Reconsidering Virginia Judicial Selection, 43 University of Richmond Law Review 37 (2008).

Assessing the Revised Arizona Local Rules of Federal Procedure, 39 Arizona State Law Journal 521 (2007).

The Process Due Indefinitely Detained Citizens, 85 North Carolina Law Review 1687 (2007).

Efforts to Split the Ninth Circuit Unsuccessful in the 109th Congress, 90 Judicature 135 (2006).

Reassessing Charitable Immunity in Virginia, 41 University of Richmond Law Review 6 (2006).

Viewpoint: Legislation Without Deliberation, 189 Judicature 236 (2006).

Fourth Circuit Publication Practices, 62 Washington and Lee Law Review 1733 (2005).

Health Courts: Panacea or Palliative?, 40 University of Richmond Law Review 49 (2005).

Symposium Essay: Appellate Court Appointments in the Second Bush Administration, 39 University of Richmond Law Review 949 (2005).

The Federal Appellate Court Appointments Conundrum, 2005 Utah Law Review 743 (2005).

Brown and the Desegregation of Virginia Law Schools, 39 University of Richmond Law Review 39 (2004).

Committee to Evaluate Judicial Conduct and Disability Act, Judicature 36 (2004).

Doing Right by Charles Alan Wright, 37 U.C. Davis Law Review 1351 (2004).

Punishment and the War on Terrorism, 6 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 1116 (2004).

Response: More Proposals to Simplify Modern Federal Procedure, 38 Georgia Law Review 1323 (2004).

Rule 11 and Rule Revision, 37 Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 573 (with Margaret Sanner) (2004).

Detentions, Military Commissions, Terrorism, and Domestic Case Precedent, 76 Southern California Law Review 1371 (2003).

Justice Byron White and the Importance of Process, 30 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 297 (2003).

Procedural Provisions in Nevada Medical Malpractice Reform, 3 Nevada Law Journal 406 (2003).

Quirin Revisited, 2003 Wisconsin Law Review 309 (with A. Bryant) (2003).

Sixth Circuit Federal Judicial Selection, 36 U.C. Davis Law Review 721 (2003).

The Past and Future of the Federal Rules in State Courts, 3 Nevada Law Journal 400 (2003).

A Civil Discovery Dilemma for the Arizona Supreme Court, 34 Arizona State Law Journal 615 (2002).

Anastasoff, Unpublished Opinions, and Federal Appellate Justice, 25 Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 1171 (2002).

Dear Chief Judge Schroeder, 13 Stanford Law and Policy Review 161 (2002).

Dear President Bush, 67 Missouri Law Review 1 (2002).

Federal Judicial Selection in the Fourth Circuit, 80 North Carolina Law Review 2001 (2002).

Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress in Nevada, 2 Nevada Law Journal 59 (2002).

Judge Procter Hug, Jr. and Good Judgment, 3 Nevada Law Journal 29 (2002).

Judicial Selection at the Clinton Administration's End, 19 Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice 159 (2002).

Local Federal Civil Procedure for the Twenty-First Century, 77 Notre Dame Law Review 533 (2002).

Note on the Neutral Assignment of Federal Appellate Judges, 39 San Diego Law Review 151 (2002).

The Expiration of the Civil Justice Reform Act of 1990, 59 Washington and Lee Law Review 541 (2002).

Youngstown Revisited, 29 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 373 (with Christopher Bryant) (2002).

A Divisional Arrangement for the Federal Appeals Courts, 43 Arizona Law Review 633 (2001).

A Modest Reform for Federal Procedural Rulemaking, Law & Contemporary Problems 283 (2001).

Charles Alan Wright and the Fragmentation of Federal Practice and Procedure, 19 Yale Law & Policy Review 463 (2001).

The 2000 Federal Civil Rules Revisions, 38 San Diego Law Review 875 (2001).

The Bush Administration and Appeals Courts Nominees, 10 William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 103 (2001).

Shifting Winds: Court Whittles Away at Plaintiff's Recovery of Attorney Fees, American Bar Association Journal 43 (with Margaret Sanner) (2001).

A Preferable Approach for the Ninth Circuit, 88 California Law Review 1657 (with Procter Hug, Jr.) (2000).

Chief Judge Martin and the Modern Sixth Circuit, 49 American University Law Review 1059 (2000).

Choosing Judges at the Close of the Clinton Administration, 52 Rutgers Law Review 827 (2000).

Civil Justice Delay and Empirical Data: A response to Professor Heise, 51 Case Western Reserve Law Review 235 (2000).

Congress and the 2000 Federal Civil Rules Amendments, 22 Cardozo Law Review 75 (2000).

Filling the Federal Appellate Openings on the 9th Circuit, 19 Review of Litigation 233 (2000).

Natural Resources and the White Commission Report, 79 Oregon Law Review 619 (2000).

Rethinking Intervention in Environmental Litigation, 78 Washington University Law Quarterly 313 (2000).

The Federal Appeals Courts at Century's End, 34 U.C. Davis Law Review 549 (2000).

The Next Step for the Ninth Circuit, 73 Southern California Law Review 1407 (2000).

The White Commission and the Federal Circuit, 10 Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy 45 (2000).

A Federal Appellate System for the Twenty-First Century, 74 Washington Law Review 275 (1999).

A Split by Any Other Name ..., 15 Journal of Law & Politics 397 (with Proctor Hug, Jr.) (1999).

Choosing Judges at the Close of the Clinton Administration, 52 Rutgers Law Review 827-854 (1999).

Fin-De-Siecle Federal Civil Procedure, 51 Florida Law Review 641 (1999).

Leaving a Legacy on the Federal Courts, 53 University of Miami Law Review 315 (1999).

Local Procedural Review in the Eighth Circuit, 1 The Journal of Appellate Practice and Process 101 (1999).

The Imminent Demise of Interspousal Tort Immunity, 60 Montana Law Review 101 (1999).

Civil Justice Reform Sunset, 1998 University of Illinois Law Review 547 (1998).

Dear Justice White, 30 Arizona State Law Journal 1127 (1998).

Did the Civil Justice Reform Act of 1990 Actually Expire, 31 Universtiy of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 887 (1998).

Discovery Reform Redux, 31 Connecticut Law Review 1433 (1998).

Federal Judicial Selection in a Time of Divided Government, 47 Emory Law Journal 527 (1998).

Panel Rejects Ninth Circuit Split, 82 Judicature 144 (1998).

Reforming Common Sense Legal Reforms, 30 Connecticut Law Review 537 (1998).

The Federal Appellate Study at Midpoint, 82 Judicature 44 (1998).

Choosing Federal Judges in the Second Clinton Administration, 24 Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 741 (1997).

Congress Authorizes Appellate Study Panel, 81 Judicature 125 (1997).

Contemplating the End of Federal Civil Justice Reform in Montana, 58 Montana Law Review 281 (1997).

Dear President Clinton, 19 Women's Rights Law Reporter 39 (1997).

Fostering Balance on the Federal Courts, 47 American University Law Review 935 (1997).

House Authorizes Appellate Court Study Commission, 80 Judicature 292 (1997).

Magistrate Judges in the Montana Federal District, 174 Federal Rules Decisions 514 (1997).

Some Cautions about Structural Overhaul of the Federal Courts, 51 University of Miami Law Review 389 (1997).

Some Realism about Federal Procedural Reform, 49 Florida Law Review 49 (1997).

Suggestions for Studying the Federal Appellate System, 49 Florida Law Review 189 (1997).

The Judicial Vacancy Conundrum in the Ninth Circuit, 63 Brooklyn Law Review 1283 (1997).

Why Congress Should Not Split the Ninth Circuit, 50 SMU Law Review 583 (1997).

An Analysis of Federal Appellate Court Study Commissions, 74 Denver University Law Review 65 (1996).

Congress Considers Bill to Split Ninth Circuit, 79 Judicature 198 (1996).

Continuing Federal Justice Reform in Montana, 57 Montana Law Review 143 (1996).

Filling the Federal Courts in an Election Year, 49 SMU Law Review 309 (1996).

Foreward: The Proposal to Split the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, 57 Montana Law Review 241 (1996).

Intentional Infliction of Mental Distress in Montana, 57 Montana Law Review 493 (1996).

New Certiorari and a National Study of the Appeals Courts, 81 Cornell Law Review 1264 (1996).

Ongoing Federal Civil Justice Reform in Montana, 57 Montana Law Review 511 (1996).

Public School Desegregation in Virginia during the Post-Brown Decade, 37 William and Mary Law Review 1261 (1996).

State of the Art in Montana Products Liability Law, 57 Montana Law Review 493 (1996).

Studying the Federal Appellate System, 80 Judicature 138 (1996).

The Civil Justice Reform Act Amendment Act of 1995, 164 Federal Rules Decisions 577 (with Margaret Sanner) (1996).

The Proposal to Split the Ninth Circuit, 20 Harvard Environmental Law Review 547 (1996).

Warren Burger and the Administration of Justice, 41 Villanova Law Review 505 (1996).

A Salute to Judge William W. Schwarzer, 46 Hastings Law Journal 675 (1995).

A Sixth Circuit Story, 23 Florida State University Law Review 983-994 (1995).

An Update on the 1993 Federal Rules Amendments and the Montana Civil Rules, 56 Montana Law Review 547 (1995).

Automatic Disclosures and Disuniformity in the Ninth Circuit, 41 Wayne Law Review 1385 (1995).

Common Sense and Other Legal Reforms, 48 Vanderbilt Law Review 699 (1995).

Elevated Pleading in Environmental Litigation, 27 U.C. Davis Law Review 357 (1995).

Extending the Civil Justice Reform Act of 1990, 64 University of Cincinnati Law Review 105 (1995).

Increasing Balance on the Federal Bench, 32 Houston Law Review 137 (1995).

Judge William W. Schwarzer and Automatic Disclosure, 28 U.C. Davis Law Review 1123 (1995).

More Modern Civil Procedure, 56 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 801 (1995).

Northern Rockies Report on 1994 Natural Resources Legislation, 35 Natural Resources Journal 185 (1995).

Participant Compensation in the Clinton Administration, 27 Connecticut Law Review 563 (1995).

Re-Evaluating Federal Civil Justice Reform in Montana, 56 Montana Law Review 307 (1995).

Refining Federal Civil Justice Reform in Montana, 56 Montana Law Review 539 (1995).

Stuck Inside the Heartland with Those Coastline Clerking Blues Again, 1995 Wisconsin Law Review 919 (1995).

Studying Montana State Civil Justice Reform, 56 Montana Law Review 319 (1995).

Suggestions for Circuit Court Review of Local Procedures, 52 Washington and Lee Law Review 359 (1995).

The Impoverished Idea of Circuit-Splitting, 44 Emory Law Journal 1357 (1995).

The Judicial Amendments Act of 1994, 159 Federal Rules Decisions 649 (with Margaret Sanner) (1995).

Why Congress Should Reject Revision of Rule 11, 160 Federal Rules Decisions 275 (1995).

1993 Federal Rules Amendments and the Montana Civil Rules, 55 Montana Law Review 415 (1994).

A Progress Report in Automatic Disclosures in the Federal Districts, 155 Federal Rules Decisions 229 (1994).

Evaluating Federal Civil Justice Reform in Montana, 55 Montana Law Review 449 (1994).

Forum: Dear Judge Mikva, 1994 Wisconsin Law Review 1579 (1994).

Improving the 1988 and 1990 Judicial Improvements Acts, 46 Stanford Law Review 1589 (1994).

Manuscript Selection Anti-Manifesto, 80 Cornell Law Review 529 (1994).

Recent Federal Civil Justice Reform in Montana, 55 Montana Law Review 235 (1994).

Some Realism About Empiricism, 26 Connecticut Law Review 1093 (1994).

The 1993 Revision of Federal Rule 11, 70 Indiana Law Journal 171 (1994).

The Transmittal Letter Translated, 46 Florida Law Review 127 (1994).

Civil Justice Reform in the Fourth Circuit, 50 Washington and Lee Law Review 89 (1993).

Civil Justice Reform in the Western District of Missouri, 58 Missouri Law Review 335 (1993).

Closing the Gender Gap on the Federal Courts, 61 University of Cincinnati Law Review 1237 (1993).

Executive Branch Civil Justice Reform, 42 American University Law Review 1521 (1993).

Finding the New Federal Civil Procedures, 151 Federal Rules Decisions 177 (1993).

In Defense of Experimentation with Automatic Disclosure, 27 Georgia Law Review 665 (1993).

Keeping the Covenant on the Federal Courts, 47 SMU Law Review 1861 (1993).

More on Federal Civil Justice Reform in Montana, 54 Montana Law Review 357 (1993).

Opt-Outs at the Outlaw Inn: A Report from Montana, 14 The Review of Litigation 207 (1993).

President Clinton's Covenant and the Federal Courts, 71 Denver University Law Review 253 (1993).

Recalibrating the Civil Justice Reform Act, 30 Harvard Journal on Legislation 115 (1993).

Rethinking Federal Judicial Selection, 1993 Brigham Young University Law Review 1257 (1993).

Silver Linings in Federal Civil Justice Reform, 59 Brooklyn Law Review 857 (1993).

The Case for a Feminist Torts Casebook, 38 Villanova Law Review 1517 (1993).

The Clinton Administration and Civil Justice Reform, 144 Federal Rules Decisions 437 (1993).

The D.C. Circuit as a National Court, 48 University of Miami Law Review 159 (1993).

The Gender Gap on the Montana State Bench, 54 Montana Law Review 125 (1993).

Untenable, Unchristian, and Unconstitutional, 58 Missouri Law Review 855 (1993).

Updating Federal Civil Justice Reform in Montana, 54 Montana Law Review 89 (1993).

Amending the Other Party Joinder Amendments, 139 Federal Rules Decisions 519 (1992).

Civil Justice Planning in the Montana Federal District, 53 Montana Law Review 239 (1992).

Civil Justice Reform and the Balkanization of Federal Civil Procedure, 24 Arizona State Law Journal 1393 (1992).

Civil Justice Reform Roadmap, 142 Federal Rules Decisions 507 (1992).

Civil Rights Plaintiffs and the Proposed Revision of Rule 11, 77 Iowa Law Review 1775 (1992).

Civil Rights Procedural Problems, 70 Washington University Law Quarterly 801 (1992).

Environmental Litigation and Rule 11, 33 William and Mary Law Review 429 (1992).

Fact, Fiction, and Forest Service Appeals, 32 Natural Resources Journal 649 (1992).

Judicial Oversight of Civil Justice Reform, 140 Federal Rules Decisions 49 (1992).

Montana Fight Over Women's Rights, 3 Hastings Women's Law Journal 263 (1992).

Rule Revision Roundelay, 1992 Wisconsin Law Review 223 (1992).

Should Montana Adopt a Civil Justice Reform Act?, 53 Montana Law Review 233 (1992).

The Montana Federal Civil Justice Plan, 53 Montana Law Review 91 (1992).

The President and the Federal Bench, 1992 Wisconsin Law Review 1329 (1992).

The Transformation of Trans-Substantivitiy, 49 Washington and Lee Law Review 1501 (1992).

Certification and Civil Rights, 136 Federal Rules Decisions 223 (1991).

Civil Rights Conunbrum, 26 Georgia Law Review 901 (1991).

Elixir for the Elites, 76 Iowa Law Review 353 (1991).

Federal Court Procedural Reform in Montana, 52 Montana Law Review 433 (1991).

Judicial Discretion and the 1983 Amendments to the Federal Civil Rules, 43 Rutgers Law Review 933 (1991).

More Women Named Federal Judges, 43 Florida Law Review 477 (1991).

Recent Work of the Civil Rules Committee, 52 Montana Law Review 307 (with Margaret Sanner) (1991).

Reconsidering Rule 11, 46 University of Miami Law Review 855 (1991).

Rule 11 Recalibrated in Civil Rights Cases, 36 Villanova Law Review 105 (1991).

Standing to Intervene, 1991 Wisconsin Law Review 415 (1991).

An Independent Public Law, 4 Administrative Law Journal 143 (1990).

Engendering Law Faculties, 44 University of Miami Law Review 1143 (1990).

Intervention after Webster, 38 University of Kansas Law Review 731 (1990).

Reassessing Rule 11 and Civil Rights Cases, 33 Howard Law Journal 161 (1990).

Reviving Participant Compensation, 22 Connecticut Law Review 505 (1990).

The Federal Judiciary Engendered, 5 Wisconsin Women's Law Journal 123 (1990).

The Gender Gap on the Federal Bench, 19 Hofstra Law Review 171 (1990).

Interspousal Tort Immunity in America, 23 Georgia Law Review 359 (1989).

Public Law Litigation and the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, 74 Cornell Law Review 270 (1989).

Respect for Diversity: The Case of Feminist Legal Thought, 58 University of Cincinnati Law Review 175 (1989).

Revitalizing the Consumer Product Safety Commission, 50 Montana Law Review 237 (1989).

Rule 11 and Civil Rights Litigation, 37 Buffalo Law Review 485 (1989).

Gender Issues and the Prosser, Wade, and Schwartz Torts Casebook, 18 Golden Gate University Law Review 495 (1988).

Early Alternative Dispute Resolution in a Federal Administrative Agency Context: Experimentation with the Offeror Process at the Consumer Product Safety Commission, 44 Washington and Lee Law Review 409 (1987).

Great Expectations and Mismatched Compensation: Government Sponsored Public Participation in Proceedings of the Consumer Product Safety Commission, 64 Washington University Law Quarterly 1101 (1986).

Rule 19 and the Public Rights Exception to Party Joinder, 65 North Carolina Law Review 745 (1986).

Public Funds and Public Participation, 82 Columbia Law Review 906 (1982).

Of Crabbed Interpretations and Frustrated Mandates: The Effect of Environmental Policy Acts on Pre-existing Agency Authority, 41 Montana Law Review 177 (with Daniel McLean) (1980).

Framework for Analysis of Products Liability in Montana, 38 Montana Law Review 221 (with William Rossbach) (1977).

Book Chapters

Civil Justice and Judicial Selection, in Justice in Jeopardy: Report of the Commission on the 21st Century Judiciary (American Bar Association) (with Andy Spalding) (2003).

Civil Justice and Judicial Selection, in Justice in Jeopardy: Report of the Commission on the 21st Century Judiciary (American Bar Association) (with Andy Spalding) (2003).

Book Reviews

Improving Federal Judicial Selection, 44 University of Richmond Law Review 1173 (2010).

Unmasking Judicial Extremism, 43 University of Richmond Law Review 1175 (2009).

Has the Chesapeake Bay Tide Turned?, 40 University of Richmond Law Review 1155 (2006).

Questioning Quirin, 97 Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 365 (2006).

Reconciling Pinstripes and Pearls, 14 Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy 471 (with Margaret Sanner) (2005).

Brown's Legacy at Fifty, 78 Tulane Law Review 2321 (2004).

The Color Line in the Cold War, 26 Human Rights Quarterly 785 (2004).

The Founding Fish Founders, 31 Ecology Law Quarterly 205 (2004).

Western Sovereignty for the Twenty-First Century, 34 Environmental Law 819 (Lewis & Clark Law School) (2004).

From a Cattle Ranch to the Supreme Court, 35 Arizona State Law Journal 1385 (2003).

Unmasking Federalism, 88 Cornell Law Review 1833 (2003).

Modern Tort Law Demystified, 3 Nevada Law Journal 188 (2002).

Charlotte and the American Dilemma, 48 University of Kansas Law Review 139 (1999).

Modern Federal Judicial Selection, 67 University of Cincinnati Law Review 527 (1999).

Losing the Littoral Zone, 22 Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 693 (1995).

Newspaper Articles

Opinion: Filling Judge Hudson's Easter District Vacancy, The Washington Post (June 2018).

Blackberry Blues, Richmond Times-Dispatch (with Jim Gibson) (February 2006) (Op-Ed.).

In the News

Judge Who Sentenced Roger Stone Is Feeling Heat from Trump (Voice of America)
Thu., Feb. 27, 2020

Looking At Changes Happening Within The Nation's Largest Federal Appeals Court (WBUR On Point)
Wed., Feb. 26, 2020

Arizona's Senators Seek 5 New US District Judgeships (Law360)
Mon., Feb. 24, 2020

Britain starts hearing US case for extraditing Assange (Yahoo! News)
Mon., Feb. 24, 2020

In extradition bid, U.S. accuses Assange of endangering sources (The Hindu)
Mon., Feb. 24, 2020

Julian Assange: He infuriated Washington. Now he's facing life in prison. (USA Today)
Sun., Feb. 23, 2020

Trump has flipped the 9th Circuit - and some new judges are causing a 'shock wave' (Los Angeles Times)
Sat., Feb. 22, 2020

For Dicamba, the Future Is Lawsuits (CropLife)
Thu., Feb. 20, 2020

Trump Boosts Conservative Lean of Key Circuit (Podcast)
Thu., Feb. 20, 2020

Roger Stone expected to challenge federal judge's sentencing, drag out case (The Washington Times)
Wed., Feb. 19, 2020

US Farmers Against BASF and Bayer (Bioplastics News)
Wed., Feb. 19, 2020

Dicamba Verdict Could Be A Precedent For Other Farmers' Suits (NPR: St. Louis Public Radio)
Tue., Feb. 18, 2020

Ban on Assault-Style Weapons Blocked in Virginia Senate (The Wall Street Journal)
Mon., Feb. 17, 2020

Bayer is facing a new wave of herbicide lawsuits - and this time it's not over Monsanto's Roundup (Fortune)
Mon., Feb. 17, 2020

Tesla Berlin Factory Risks Months-Long Legal Delay Over Wildlife (Investors.com)
Mon., Feb. 17, 2020

Bayer faces 'almost impossible' task of ending glyphosate-cancer litigation while its Roundup herbicide remains in stores (Genetic Literacy Project)
Fri., Feb. 14, 2020

Trump makes mark on Texas judiciary (Austin American-Statesman)
Fri., Feb. 14, 2020

Bayer Strives to End Lawsuits Over Roundup - While Still Selling It (The Wall Street Journal)
Wed., Feb. 12, 2020

Senate confirms former prosecutor as newest St. Louis federal judge (St. Louis Post-Dispatch)
Wed., Feb. 12, 2020

Blue States Create Hurdle for Trump's 2020 Judicial Appointments (Bloomberg Law)
Tue., Feb. 11, 2020

GOP senators want to confirm more judges. That could mean working with Democrats (Roll Call)
Tue., Feb. 11, 2020

Senate confirms Alabama Judge Andrew Brasher for federal appeals court post (Alabama.com)
Tue., Feb. 11, 2020

Democrats offer their vision for remaking the courts (E&E News)
Mon., Feb. 10, 2020

Herring, other state AGs file lawsuit demanding addition of ERA to Constitution (The Washington Post)
Thu., Jan. 30, 2020

Virginia's Mark Herring, other state AGs, sue to have ERA recognized in U.S. Constitution (Richmond-Times Dispatch)
Thu., Jan. 30, 2020

A police search in Creighton Court leads to unusual hearing of full federal appeals court (Richmond-Times Dispatch)
Wed., Jan. 29, 2020

Trump legal team begins second day of arguments under Bolton furor (The Hill)
Mon., Jan. 27, 2020

2 Lawyers on Trump Defense Team Shared Epstein as a Client (U.S. News & World Report)
Fri., Jan. 24, 2020

Impeachment and 'Red Flag' Due Process (WRVA)
Fri., Jan. 24, 2020

The Senate won't vote to remove President Trump. But what happens if it did? (The Salt Lake Tribune)
Wed., Jan. 22, 2020

Heather Heyer's mom owns guns and says Democrats in Richmond, Virginia, are going too far (USA Today)
Mon., Jan. 20, 2020

Critics, lawyers agree: Chris Collins got lucky with 2-month sentence (The Buffalo News)
Sat., Jan. 18, 2020

Trump chooses high-profile but controversial legal team (The Hill)
Fri., Jan. 17, 2020

UPDATE: Virginia Supreme Court rejects gun groups' bid to overturn Northam's gun ban at Capitol Square (Richmond Times-Dispatch)
Fri., Jan. 17, 2020

Appeal filed after motion denied to overturn Northam's temporary weapons ban (CBS 6)
Thu., Jan. 16, 2020

UPDATE: Gun activists appeal to Virginia Supreme Court after judge rejects bid to halt gun ban in Capitol Square (Richmond Times-Dispatch)
Thu., Jan. 16, 2020

Virginia Votes to Ratify ERA, Setting Up Likely Legal Battle (The Wall Street Journal)
Thu., Jan. 16, 2020

With Trials Looming, Monsanto Looks to Settle Some Roundup Cases (Law.com)
Thu., Jan. 16, 2020

Alabama NAACP among groups calling for halt to federal judgeship confirmation (Al.com)
Wed., Jan. 15, 2020

In bipartisan vote, Senate approves former R.I. official to lead FEMA (Providence Journal)
Tue., Jan. 14, 2020

Collins' record consistent on judicial confirmations (Press Herald)
Mon., Jan. 13, 2020

Roundup mediator is 'optimistic' about a 'comprehensive settlement' (St. Louis Business Journal)
Mon., Jan. 13, 2020

What�s at stake for Iran after admitting it downed the Ukraine airliner (The Washington Post)
Sat., Jan. 11, 2020

Bayer Roundup Mediator Is 'Optimistic' With Talks Heating Up (Bloomberg)
Fri., Jan. 10, 2020

Bayer Roundup Mediator Is 'Optimistic' With Talks Heating Up (Claims Journal)
Fri., Jan. 10, 2020

Why Mike Lee is mad about the Iran briefing (The Salt Lake Tribune)
Thu., Jan. 9, 2020

Divisive 5th Circ. Pick Snubbed On 2020 Renominations List (Law360)
Mon., Jan. 6, 2020

When Carlos Ghosn fled Japan, he left an old colleague behind (The Financial Times)
Mon., Jan. 6, 2020

Turkey Questions Pilots About Carlos Ghosn�s Escape From Japan (The New York Times)
Thu., Jan. 2, 2020

How Trump Will Continue To Change The Courts In 2020 (Law360)
Wed., Jan. 1, 2020

The Peninsula hasn't had its own federal judge for nearly 200 years. That could soon end. (Daily Press)
Tue., Dec. 31, 2019

Will President Trump finally fill a long-open seat on Milwaukee federal court? (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel)
Tue., Dec. 31, 2019

'Unconstitutional, Period': UVA legal scholar challenges legislative appointments to state executive boards (Richmond Times-Dispatch)
Fri., Dec. 27, 2019

Boeing ousts chief executive Dennis Muilenburg (The Guardian)
Mon., Dec. 23, 2019

Charlottesville Lawsuit Drawn Out By Lack Of Compliance (VPM)
Mon., Dec. 23, 2019

Trump Appellate Pick Ozerden in Limbo With Senate Adjourned (Bloomberg Law)
Mon., Dec. 23, 2019

Trump Passes Judicial Confirmation Goal (Podcast)
Fri., Dec. 20, 2019

Trump's transformation of the courts barrels onward (The Associated Press)
Fri., Dec. 20, 2019

Trump presidency's most lasting impact? A transformed judiciary. (The Christian Science Monitor)
Thu., Dec. 19, 2019

2019 Archives ()
Tue., Jan. 1, 2019

2017 - 2018 Archives ()
Mon., Dec. 31, 2018

2017 Archives ()
Sun., Dec. 31, 2017

2016 Archives ()
Sat., Dec. 31, 2016

2015 Archives ()
Thu., Dec. 31, 2015

2013 - 2014 Archives ()
Wed., Dec. 31, 2014

Education
LL.B., University of Virginia 1972
B.A., Duke University 1968
Contact Information
Room 323 Law School
(804) 287 6440
(804) 289 8683 (Fax)
Areas of Expertise
Federal Courts and Judicial Selection
Constitutional Law
Torts
Product Liability